The pyrethroid insecticides are extremely toxic to fish, with 96—h LC50 values generally below 10 μg/L and i.p. and i.v. LD50 values below 20 mg/kg. Corresponding LD50 values in mammals and birds are in the range of several hundred to several thousand milligrams per kilogram. This review examines pyrethroid toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics in fish as critical factors associated with species selectivity. Studies with permethrin, cypermethrin and fenvalerate have established that rates of metabolism and elimination in rainbow trout are significantly lower than those reported for birds and mammals. Comparatively low lethal brain pyrethroid concentrations and nonneural aspects of pyrethroid intoxication in fish suggest that variations in toxicodynamics are also crucial in evaluating pyrethroid selectivity.
- Pyrethroid insecticides,
Available at: http://works.bepress.com/joel_coats/3/