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Unpublished Paper
Chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing
Scientific Reports
  • Hjalmar S. Kühl, Max Planck Institute
  • Ammie K. Kalan, Max Planck Institute
  • Mimi Arandjelovic, Max Planck Institute
  • Floris Aubert, Wild Chimpanzee Foundation
  • Lucy D'Auvergne, Wild Chimpanzee Foundation
  • Annemarie Goedmakers, Chimbo Foundation
  • Sorrel Jones, Max Planck Institute
  • Laura Kehoe, Wild Chimpanzee Foundation
  • Sebastien Regnaut, Wild Chimpanzee Foundation
  • Alexander Tickle, Max Planck Institute
  • Els Ton, Max Planck Institute
  • Joost van Schijndel, Max Planck Institute
  • Ekwoge E. Abwe, Ebo Forest Research Project
  • Samuel Angedakin, Max Planck Institute
  • Anthony Agbor, Max Planck Institute
  • Emmanuel Ayuk Ayimisin, Max Planck Institute
  • Emma Bailey, Max Planck Institute
  • Mattia Besone, Max Planck Institute
  • Matthieu Bonnet, The Aspinall Foundation
  • Gregory Brazolla, Max Planck Institute
  • Walentine Ebua Buh, Max Planck Institute
  • Rebecca Chancellor, West Chester University of Pennsylvania
  • Chloe Cipoletta, Wildlife Conservation Society
  • Heather Cohen, Max Planck Institute
  • Katherine Corogenes, Max Planck Institute
  • Charlotte Coupland, Max Planck Institute
  • Bryan Curran, The Aspinall Foundation
  • Tobias Deschner, Max Planck Institute
  • Karsten Dierks, Max Planck Institute
  • Paula Dieguez, Max Planck Institute
  • Emmanuel Dilambaka, Wildlife Conservation Society
  • Orume Diotoh, Korup Rainforest Conservation Society
  • Dervla Dowd, Wild Chimpanzee Foundation
  • Andrew Dunn, Wildlife Conservation Society
  • Henk Eshuis, Max Planck Institute
  • Rumen Fernandez, Max Planck Institute
  • Yisa Ginath, Max Planck Institute
  • John Hart, Lukuru Foundation
  • Daniella Hedwig, The Aspinall Foundation
  • Martjin Ter Heegde, World Wide Fund for Nature
  • Thurston Cleveland Hicks, Max Planck Institute
  • Inaoyom Imong, Max Planck Institute
  • Kathryn J. Jeffrey, University of Stirling
  • Jessica Junker, Max Planck Institute
  • Parag Kadam, University of Cambridge
  • Mohamed Kambi, Max Planck Institute
  • Ivonne Kienast, Max Planck Institute
  • Deo Kujirakwinja, Wildlife Conservation Society
  • Kevin Langergraber, Arizona State University
  • Vincent Lapeyre, Wild Chimpanzee Foundation
  • Juan Lapuente, Max Planck Institute
  • Kevin Lee, Max Planck Institute
  • Vera Leinert, Wild Chimpanzee Foundation
  • Amelia Meier, Max Planck Institute
  • Giovanna Maretti, Max Planck Institute
  • Sergio Marrocoli, Max Planck Institute
  • Tanyi Julius Mbi, Max Planck Institute
  • Vianet Mihindou, Agence National des Parcs Nationaux
  • Yasmin Moebius, Max Planck Institute
  • David Morgan, Wildlife Conservation Society
  • Bethan Morgan, Ebo Forest Research Project
  • Felix Mulindahabi, Wildlife Conservation Society
  • Mizuki Murai, Max Planck Institute
  • Protais Niyigabae, Wildlife Conservation Society
  • Emma Normand, Wild Chimpanzee Foundation
  • Nicholas Ntare, Wildlife Conservation Society
  • Lucy Jayne Ormsby, Max Planck Institute
  • Alex Piel, Liverpool John Moores University
  • Jill D. Pruetz, Iowa State University
  • Aaron Rundus, West Chester University of Pennsylvania
  • Crickette Sanz, Washington University in St. Louis
  • Volker Sommer, University College of London
  • Fiona Stewart, University of Cambridge
  • Nikki Tagg, Royal Zoological Society of Antwerp
  • Hildi Vanleeuwe, Wildlife Conservation Society
  • Virginie Vergnes, Wild Chimpanzee Foundation
  • Jacob Willie, Royal Zoological Society of Antwerp
  • Roman M. Wittig, Max Planck Institute
  • Klaus Zuberbuehle, Université de Neuchâtel
  • Christophe Boesch, Max Planck Institute
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The study of the archaeological remains of fossil hominins must rely on reconstructions to elucidate the behaviour that may have resulted in particular stone tools and their accumulation. Comparatively, stone tool use among living primates has illuminated behaviours that are also amenable to archaeological examination, permitting direct observations of the behaviour leading to artefacts and their assemblages to be incorporated. Here, we describe newly discovered stone tool-use behaviour and stone accumulation sites in wild chimpanzees reminiscent of human cairns. In addition to data from 17 mid- to long-term chimpanzee research sites, we sampled a further 34 Pan troglodytes communities. We found four populations in West Africa where chimpanzees habitually bang and throw rocks against trees, or toss them into tree cavities, resulting in conspicuous stone accumulations at these sites. This represents the first record of repeated observations of individual chimpanzees exhibiting stone tool use for a purpose other than extractive foraging at what appear to be targeted trees. The ritualized behavioural display and collection of artefacts at particular locations observed in chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing may have implications for the inferences that can be drawn from archaeological stone assemblages and the origins of ritual sites.

This is an article from Scientific Reports 6 (2016): 22219, doi:10.1038/srep22219. Posted with permission.

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Hjalmar S. Kühl, Ammie K. Kalan, Mimi Arandjelovic, Floris Aubert, et al.. "Chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing" Scientific Reports Vol. 6 (2016) p. 22219
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