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A Benchmark Study on the Thermal Conductivity of Nanofluids
  • Jacopo Buongiorno, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
  • David C. Venerus, Illinois Institute of Technology
  • Naveen Prabhat, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
  • Thomas McKrell, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
  • Jessica Townsend, Franklin W. Olin College of Engineering
  • Rebecca J. Christianson, Franklin W. Olin College of Engineering
  • Yuriv V. Tolmachev, Kent State University - Kent Campus
  • Pawel Keblinski, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
  • Lin-wen Hu, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
  • Jorge L. Alvarado, Texas A & M University - College Station
  • In Cheol Bang, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology
  • Sandra W. Bishnoi, Illinois Institute of Technology
  • Marco Bonetti, Commissariat à l’Énergie Atomique
  • Frank Botz, METSS Corporation
  • Anselmo Cecere, University of Naples
  • Yun Chang, SASOL of North America
  • Gang Chen, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
  • Haisheng Chen, University of Leeds
  • Sung Jae Chung, University of Pittsburgh - Main Campus
  • Minking K. Chyu, University of Pittsburgh - Main Campus
  • Sarit K. Das, Indian Institute of Technology - Madras
  • Roberto Di Paola, University of Naples
  • Yulong Ding, University of Leeds
  • Frank Dubois, Université Libre de Bruxelles
  • Grzegorz Dzido, Silesian University of Technology
  • Jacob Eapen, North Carolina State University at Raleigh
  • Werner Escher, Zurich Reseach Laboratory
  • Denis Funfschilling, Chinese University of Hong Kong
  • Quentin Galand, Université Libre de Bruxelles
  • Jinwei Gao, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
  • Patricia E. Gharagozloo, Stanford University
  • Kenneth E. Goodson, Stanford University
  • Jorge Gustavo Gutierrez, University of Puerto Rico - Mayaguez
  • Haiping Hong, South Dakota School of Mines and Technology
  • Mark Horton, South Dakota School of Mines and Technology
  • Kyo Sik Hwang, Korea Aerospace University
  • Carlo S. Iorio, Université Libre de Bruxelles
  • Seok Pil Jang, Korea Aerospace University
  • Andrzej B. Jarzebski, Silesian University of Technology
  • Yiran Jiang, Illinois Institute of Technology
  • Stephan Kabelac, Helmut-Schmidt University - Hamburg
  • Liwen Jin, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore
  • Aravind Kamath, Texas A&M University
  • Mark A. Kedzierski, National Institute of Standards and Technology
  • Lim Geok Kieng, DSO National Laboratories
  • Chongyoup Kim, Korea University
  • Ji-Hyun Kim, Ulsan Institute of Science and Technology
  • Seokwon Kim, Korea University - Korea
  • Seung Hyun Lee, Korea Aerospace University
  • Kai Choong Leong, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore
  • Indranil Manna, Indian Institute of Technology - Kharagpur
  • Bruno Michel, Zurich Research Laboratory
  • Rui Ni, Chinese University of Hong Kong
  • Hrishikesh E. Patel, Indian Institute of Technology - Madras
  • John Philip, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research
  • Dimos Poulikakos, Laboratory of Thermodynamics in Emerging Technologies
  • Cecil Reynaud, Commissariat à l’Énergie Atomique
  • Raffaele Savino, University of Naples
  • Pawan K. Singh, Indian Institute of Technology - Madras
  • Pengxiang Song, School of Engineering and Materials Science
  • Thirumalachari Sundararajan, Indian Institute of Technology - Madras
  • Elena Timofeeva, Argonne National Laboratory
  • Todd Tritcak, METSS Corporation
  • Aleksandr N. Turanov, Kent State University - Kent Campus
  • Stefan Van Vaerenbergh, Université Libre de Bruxelles
  • Dongsheng Wen, School of Engineering and Materials Science
  • Sanjeeva Witharana, University of Leeds
  • Chun Yang, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore
  • Wei-Hsun Yeh, Illinois Institute of Technology
  • Xiao-Zheng Zhao, Chinese University of Hong Kong
  • Sheng-Qi Zhou, Chinese University of Hong Kong
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This article reports on the International Nanofluid Property Benchmark Exercise, or INPBE, in which the thermal conductivity of identical samples of colloidally stable dispersions of nanoparticles or “nanofluids,” was measured by over 30 organizations worldwide, using a variety of experimental approaches, including the transient hot wire method, steady-state methods, and optical methods. The nanofluids tested in the exercise were comprised of aqueous and nonaqueous basefluids, metal and metal oxide particles, near-spherical and elongated particles, at low and high particle concentrations. The data analysis reveals that the data from most organizations lie within a relatively narrow band (±10% or less) about the sample average with only few outliers. The thermal conductivity of the nanofluids was found to increase with particle concentration and aspect ratio, as expected from classical theory. There are (small) systematic differences in the absolute values of the nanofluid thermal conductivity among the various experimental approaches; however, such differences tend to disappear when the data are normalized to the measured thermal conductivity of the basefluid. The effective medium theory developed for dispersed particles by Maxwell in 1881 and recently generalized by Nan et al. [J. Appl. Phys. 81, 6692 (1997)] , was found to be in good agreement with the experimental data, suggesting that no anomalous enhancement of thermal conductivity was achieved in the nanofluids tested in this exercise.


© (2009) American Institute of Physics. This article may be downloaded for personal use only. Any other use requires prior permission of the author and the American Institute of Physics. The article appeared in The Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 106, Iss. 9 and may be found here.

Citation Information
Jacopo Buongiorno, David C. Venerus, Naveen Prabhat, Thomas McKrell, et al.. "A Benchmark Study on the Thermal Conductivity of Nanofluids" (2009)
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