A study comparing virtual manipulatives with other instructional treatments in third- and fourth-grade classrooms..pdfJournal of Education (2013)
The study reported here examined virtual manipulatives as an instructional treatment in 17 third- and fourth-grade classrooms. Students were randomly assigned to two treatment groups: texts and physical manipulatives (PM), and virtual manipulatives (VM). Results revealed no significant differences in achievement between the treatments. Additional results showed that objective ability predicted fraction achievement; virtual manipulative use can be modulated by test question type (e.g., symbolic vs. pictorial); percentage of class time using representations differed between VM and PM classrooms; and percentage of class time spent using representation types differed, potentially providing differential opportunities to learn.
Citation InformationJessica F. Shumway. "A study comparing virtual manipulatives with other instructional treatments in third- and fourth-grade classrooms..pdf" Journal of Education Vol. 193 Iss. 2 (2013) p. 25 - 39
Available at: http://works.bepress.com/jessica-shumway/1/