The contemporary forestry preoccupation with non-declining even-flow during yield simulations detracts from more important questions about the constraints that should bind the end of a simulation. Whilst long simulations help to convey a sense of sustainability, they are inferior to stronger indicators such as the optimal state and binding conditions at the end of a simulation. Rigorous definitions of sustainability that constrain the terminal state should allow flexibility in the planning horizon and relaxation of non-declining even-flow, allowing both greater economic efficiency and better environmental outcomes. Suitable definitions cannot be divorced from forest type and management objectives, but should embrace concepts that ensure the anticipated value of the next harvest, the continuity of growing stock, and in the case of uneven-aged management, the adequacy of regeneration.
Vanclay, J 2015, 'Planning horizons and end conditions for sustained yield studies in continuous cover forests', Ecological Indicators, vol. 48, pp. 436-439.
Published version available from: