Acute renal failure (ARF) is devastating in dogs and cats, with a mortality rate of over 50%. Causes include prerenal, intrinsic renal, and postrenal conditions. Infectious disease (leptospirosis, bacterial pyelonephritis, borreliosis) and toxicity (medications, plants, antifreeze) are the most common causes of ARF in dogs and cats. Ureteral obstruction in cats is being recognized more frequently as a postrenal cause of ARF.
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