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Athletes' Use of Imagery in the Off-Season
The Sport Psychologist (2002)
  • Jennifer Cumming, University of Birmingham
  • Craig Hall, University of Western Ontario

The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of competitive level on an athletes’ use of imagery in the off-season, and to examine whether their use of imagery was related to their physical and technical preparation. Three hundred and twenty-four regional, provincial, and national level athletes were recruited to participate in this study from 10 different sports. Participants were asked to complete a modified version of the Sport Imagery Questionnaire (SIQ; Hall, Mack, Paivio, & Hausenblas, 1998) that was designed to reflect an athletes’ use of imagery in the off-season. MANOVAs indicated that competitive level differences existed in athletes’ use of imagery in the off-season, as well as in their use of physical and technical preparation for the up-coming season. More specifically, provincial and national level athletes engaged in significantly more imagery, regardless of the function, and physical and technical preparation then regional level athletes. In addition, bivariate correlations indicated that the more physical and technical preparation athletes engage in during the off-season, the more imagery they use.

Publication Date
Citation Information
Jennifer Cumming and Craig Hall. "Athletes' Use of Imagery in the Off-Season" The Sport Psychologist Vol. 16 (2002)
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