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Introducing the revised applied model of deliberate imagery use for sport, dance, exercise, and rehabilitation
Movement & Sport Sciences (2013)
  • Jennifer Cumming, University of Birmingham
  • Sarah E. Williams, University of Birmingham

This article reviews literature on cognitive and motivational imagery use in the sport, exercise, dance, and rehabilitation domains and outlines a revised applied model of imagery use. The original model by Martin, Moritz, & Hall, 1999 guides practitioners and researchers in determining what cognitive and/or motivational imagery to use in a particular situation for achieving a desired outcome. The revised model proposed builds on the original version by retaining its empiricallysupported “where”, “when”, and “why” components. Incorporating recent advancements in imagery research, the model distinguishes between what is imaged (i.e., the content) from why it is imaged (i.e., the function). The revised model also acknowledges the importance of the individual and how they interpret an image by including “who” and “meaning” components, as well as expanding on how imagery ability is likely to influence the relationship between imagery use and outcomes. Based on imagery’s increased usage beyond the sport setting, this review explains how the revised model can also be applied to individuals in the exercise, dance, and rehabilitation settings. Finally, recommendations of how imagery can be effectively used and some predictions of the revised model are provided to encourage future research and application.

  • Motor imagery,
  • cognitive imagery,
  • motivational imagery,
  • exercise,
  • dance,
  • rehabilitation
Publication Date
Citation Information
Jennifer Cumming and Sarah E. Williams. "Introducing the revised applied model of deliberate imagery use for sport, dance, exercise, and rehabilitation" Movement & Sport Sciences Vol. 82 (2013)
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