Skip to main content
Layered stimulus response training improves motor imagery ability and movement execution
Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology (2013)
  • Sarah E Williams, University of Birmingham
  • Sam J Cooley, University of Birmingham
  • Jennifer Cumming, University of Birmingham

This study aimed to test Lang’s bioinformational theory by comparing the effects of layered stimulus and response training (LSRT) with imagery practice on improvements in imagery ability and performance of a motor skill (golf putting) in 24 novices (age, M = 20.13 years; SD = 1.65; 12 female) low in imagery ability. Participants were randomly assigned to a LSRT (introducing stimulus and response propositions to an image in a layered approach), motor imagery (MI) practice, or visual imagery (VI) practice group. Following baseline measures of MI ability and golf putting performance, the LSRT and MI practice groups imaged successfully performing the golf putting task 5 times each day for 4 days whereas the VI practice group imaged the ball rolling into the hole. Only the LSRT group experienced an improvement in kinesthetic MI ability, MI ability of more complex skills, and actual golf putting performance. Results support bioinformational theory by demonstrating that LSRT can facilitate visual and kinesthetic MI ability and reiterate the importance of imagery ability to ensure MI is an effective prime for movement execution.

  • motor imagery,
  • imagery ability,
  • bioinformational theory,
  • golf,
  • putting performance
Publication Date
Citation Information
Sarah E Williams, Sam J Cooley and Jennifer Cumming. "Layered stimulus response training improves motor imagery ability and movement execution" Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology Vol. 35 (2013)
Available at: