In 2005, the Supreme Court issued its landmark ruling in MGM Studios Inc. v. Grokster, Ltd. In that ruling, the Court created the inducement standard, a new avenue by which artists could pursue claims against file-sharing companies that were facilitating the infringement of their intellectual property. Under the inducement standard, the act of inducing another to infringe copyright is now sufficient to confer secondary liability. As file-sharing outfits continue to learn from previous judicial decisions and tailor their infringement-facilitating software so as to avoid legal liability, the criminal law concept of modus operandi may prove beneficial to courts in deciding whether software operators should be liable for infringement.
Available at: http://works.bepress.com/jamie_gregorian/1/