Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) causes a variety of diseases and is globally distributed. It infects via mucosal epithelium, leading to rapid lytic replication and latent infection, primarily in sensory ganglia. Large amounts of virus can be excreted by the host on primary infection or upon recrudescence of latent infection, resulting in disease spread. The bovine immune response to BHV-1 is rapid, robust, balanced, and long-lasting. The innate immune system is the first to respond to the infection, with type I interferons (IFNs), inflammatory cytokines, killing of infected host cells, and priming of a balanced adaptive immune response. The virus possesses a variety of immune evasion strategies, including inhibition of type I IFN production, chemokine and complement binding, infection of macrophages and neutrophils, and latency. BHV-1 immune suppression contributes to the severity of its disease manifestations and to the bovine respiratory disease complex, the leading cause of cattle death loss in the USA.
Available at: http://works.bepress.com/james_roth/33/