Trade in products from intensive farming of livestock has the potential to lead to disputes, especially as opposition to factory farming on ethical, health, environmental, and developmental grounds has increased. Many European countries currently prohibit livestock agricultural practices that are allowed in the United States, Canada, and elsewhere, thus creating the possibility of international economic conflict. WTO regulations permit the consideration of health and environmental factors as possible causes for placing limitations on imports but not ethical or developmental causes. While the WTO currently does not directly recognize concerns about animal welfare and developmental issues, interest groups and parties emphasizing these factors can support other efforts to limit imports.
- trade disputes,
- factory farming,
- regional policy,
- agricultural trade,
Available at: http://works.bepress.com/james_lutz/14/