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CO2 emissions, energy consumption, and output in France
  • James B Ang, Nanyang Technological University
This paper examines the dynamic causal relationships between pollutant emissions, energy consumption, and output for France using cointegration and vector error-correction modelling techniques. We argue that these variables are strongly interrelated and therefore their relationship must be examined using an integrated framework. The results provide evidence for the existence of a fairly robust long-run relationship between these variables for the period 1960–2000. The causality results support the argument that economic growth exerts a causal influence on growth of energy use and growth of pollution in the long run. The results also point to a uni-directional causality running from growth of energy use to output growth in the short run.
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James B Ang. "CO2 emissions, energy consumption, and output in France" ENERGY POLICY (2007)
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