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About Professor Issam A.W. Mohamed

Professor Issam AW Mohamed
P.O. Box 12910-11111
Khartoum, Sudan
Phone +249-122548254
Email issamawmohamed@hotmail.com
I never stopped being amazed when I saw the Sun rising
Born out of the sea or in genesis out of the sands of the indefinite Sahara
I was always mesmerized by the Sudan down at the endless oceans of time
Or its gradual disappearance in the waters of the Nile confluence in the heart of Africa
Tears come to my eyes with the birth of a new child's cry
I am absorbed when I read or watch justice being done, at the hands of heroes or people in the streets.
Humanity made huge steps towards being human. The world is getting together day by day, to say no to selfishness, greed, totalitarianism and tyranny
From Wall Street to Damascus and Cairo, in the Nuba mountains and steppes of Darfur and Kordofan
I want to live and be alive
I want to die with the hope of being reincarnated
I want to be free.
Four months ago, I was deprived of my salary as an educator at the university. When I asked why I was forced to retire, there were no answers. However, the regime's people said that I speak too much and tell what they do not want people to see, even if it was academic. I still give lectures but without being paid. Thus, the deprivation was not complete. It is not that I am a rich man, in fact life is difficult considering the inflation and continuous increases in commodities prices in my country. I feel all right as I can read, write and give publish my opinions in the newspapers. It is best to my heart to refer to DH Lawrence:
I never saw a wild thing sorry for itself.
A bird will fall frozen dead from a bough without ever having felt sorry for itself. I was always attached to his writings and his peer TE Lawrence of Arabia. Both had free minds and love for wilderness. I wish breath freedom and that is why I could never accept enslavement at any of its forms. A man is born free how could he be enslaved by regimes hunger and destitute.
Enslavement is not just done by putting chains in man's hands and feet or jailing him in a cell or pit. Economic enslavement was know long time ago and identified in colonization by foreign or external forces.
The modern enslavement is strongly characterized by indigenous colonization through tyranny, totalitarianism and corruption.
After sixty years,most countries of the world were seemingly politically liberated and gained phenotypic independence, most of their people live in poverty, destitute, deprivation, epidemics dictatorships, underdevelopment severe disparities and desperation.
If we measure disparities we shall conclude in Sub Sahara Africa that incomes may have increased but distribution shrinks everyday. The demise of the middle class was achieved successfully by concentrating wealth in the upper strata of 1-3% of the elite population. That is how people in Tunisia Libya, Yemen, Egypt, Syria and Sudan are in the move in social revolutions manifesting their revulsion to be always the underdogs.
To my friend and colleague Ibn Omar, we always shared thoughts of freedom and love to the Great Sahara in Kordofan, Darfur and the Northern regions. We love Camels and their milk. We love the Bedouins and care about their lives. However, without education how can they survive a changing world built on usuary, market economy and greed.
We have to fight for them and for our families.
As an academician, I do not hold a weapon but I try to give my thoughts.
Did you see Al Pacino acting as a blind retired officer. That did not stop him from dancing with a beautiful lady in New York. His Tango dance with her a release of passion for life, defiance of his blindness. How can we be that courageous to defy tyrants though it is easier than defying blindness.
He was seeing and we are blind
I hope that many read them.
Notice:
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Summary of Qualifications
Issam Abdel Wahab Mohamed: Professor Doctor, Faculty of Commerce, Economics and Social Studies and Dean of the Nile Basin Research Center at Alneelain University.
عصام عبد الوهاب محمد عبد الوهاب : أستاذ دكتور . كلية التجارة والدراسات الاقتصادية والاجتماعية – جامعة النيلين ، الخرطوم – السودان .
Date of Birth & Social Status
Berber, Northern Sudan; 21 October, 1955
بربر ، 21 / أكتوبر 1955 .
Married and has five children.
متزوج ولي خمسة أطفال .
Education
Khartoum University-Sudan (graduation 1984) and Ph.D. Economics, Nagoya University-Japan (graduation 1993). Econometric Analysis of Impacts of Macroeconomic Policies on Developing Countries: Case Study of Sudan.
Professional Experience:
1- Junior-Senior Research Officer: 1975–1990: Ministry of Agriculture of the Sudan.
2- Ph.D. Scholarship at Nagoya University, Japan-1989-1993 as a Research Associate (1994-1995).
3- Fellow Researcher.
4- Post-Doctoral, Division of Socioeconomics of Food Production, Nagoya University - 1995-1997.
5- Associate Professor, Alneelain University (1997-2000).
6- Professor (2000) Alneelain University
Teaching Experience
الخبرة التدريسية
Sub-graduates:
Faculty of Commerce, Economics and Social Studies, Alneelain University
1- كلية التجارة والدراسات الاقتصادية والاجتماعية ، جامعة النيلين
(a) Econometrics,
الاقتصاد القياسي
(b) Agricultural Economics,
الاقتصاد الزراعي
(c) Economic Information Systems,
نظم المعلومات الاقتصادية
(d) Management Information Systems
نظم المعلومات الإدارية
(e) Developmental Economics.
اقتصاديات التنمية
(f) International Trade
التجارة الدولية
2- Faculty of Engineering, Alneelain University
كلية الهندسة ، جامعة النيلين
(a) An Introduction to Engineering Economics
مقدمة في الاقتصاد الهندسي
(b) Introduction to General Management
مدخل إلي علم الادارة
3- Faculty of Statistics, Demography and Information Sciences-Alneelain University
كلية الإحصاء والدراسات السكانية وتقنية المعلومات
(a) An Introduction to Econometrics
مقدمة في الاقتصاد القياسي
(b) Decision Support Systems
نظم دعم القرارات
4- Faculty of Business and Management Sciences, Sudan International University
كلية إدارة الأعمال ، جامعة السودان العالمية
(a) Total Quality Management (TQM)
إدارة الجودة الشاملة
(b) Management Information Systems )MIS)
نظم المعلومات الإدارية
(c) Banking Information System (BIS)
نظم المعلومات المصرفية
(d) Operation Research
بحوث العمليات
5- Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Alneelain University
كلية التقانة الزراعية ، جامعة النيلين
(a) Agricultural Economics
الاقتصاد الزراعي
(b) Computer Applications
تطبيقات حاسوبية
(c) Experimental Design
تصميم التجارب
Post Graduates
1- Master Degree in Economic Development Course
ماجستير الاقتصاد بالمناهج
(a) Economic Sectors Planning
التخطيط القطاعات الاقتصادي
(b) Data and Information Collection Skills
مهارات جمع وتحليل المعلومات
(c) Food Security Management
الأمن الغذائي
2- Master Degree in Accounting by Courses
ماجستير المحاسبة بالمناهج
Research Methodology
مناهج البحث
3- High Diploma in Business Management Course
الدبلوم العالي لإدارة الأعمال
Management Information Systems )MIS)
نظم المعلومات الإدارية
4- Master Degree by Courses, Institute for Disaster Control and Refugees Studies, Africa University
ماجستير بالمناهج : معهد دراسات اللاجئين والكوارث – جامعة أفريقيا
Research Methodology and Statistics
مناهج البحث والإحصاء
أوراق منشورة حديثا ، عنوان الورقة واسم المجلة ومستخلصها .
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Professor of Economics
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
P.O. Box 12910-11111
Khartoum, Khartoum 11111
Sudan
249122548254 (Phone)
Issam A.W. Mohamed's Scholarly Papers
Papers (98) Authors Date Downloads Citations
1. Hyenas and Lambs: The Implications of Impacts of South Sudan Secession | Hide Abstract | Download |
Conflict Studies Journal, Vol. 5, No. 14, February 11, 2011.
Abstract
The present paper analyzes the impacts of the Southern Sudan secession. It is concluded that the feasible and eminent secession of Southern Sudan, triggered similar process in Darfur region and feasibly other parts of the country. The two newly formed nations can get into a form of Union: confederate with two armies and a rotating presidency and national parliament or in a commercial and legal like the European Union. That is the most likely option, since the South and the North are more connected geographically, ethnically with the Hemitic blood forming a main part in the Arabs and non Arabs of the North and in the Nilotic and Hemitic-Nilotic of the South. However, it is most important to look into possibilities of changing the structure of the current political system which may be the prime impediment for future cooperation between the two nations.
Keywords: South Sudan, Secession, Ethnicity, Political System
2. Trade Liberalization and Poverty in Sudan
Journal of Emerging Markets Economics: Environmental & Social Aspects, Vol. 2, No. 27, March 18, 2011
Abstract
The current paper reviews poverty issues and economic development in Sudan. The conclusions focus on the conception that unless Sudan increases his economic activity and hence employment, the economic situation will see more deteriorations. Applying marker economy and trade liberalization policies will not help, more feasibly it will worsen food security and employment rates. The declining trend in international trade taxes resulting from trade liberalization typically would have a serious negative impact on the government budget in general, and on expenditure on education, health and transfers to the poorer segments of the society. This is likely to contribute to the aggravation of absolute poverty. The experience of trade liberalization in African countries underscores the need for proper tax policy responses and macroeconomic stability to contain the negative fiscal effects of trade liberalization. When the market structure of agricultural exports is oligopolistic, as in most African countries, trade monopolies, not the producers are the main beneficiaries of any increase in the price of exports resulting from trade liberalization. It is concluded that improvements of incidence of poverty cannot be separated from the institutional and political make-up of a country.
Trade Liberalization, WTO, COMESA, Poverty, Sudan

3. The Janjaweed, the Armed Movements and the Political Disintegration of Sudan
Conflict Studies Journal, Vol. 5, No. 8, January 28, 2011
Abstract
The present paper is part of unpublished book divided into three interrelated manuscripts that analyze the collapse of the Sudan. The current paper concludes that the rebellion by certain groups in Darfur region has triggered a further a counteraction by other tribes of Arab descendants. The counter-actors were recruited by an unprecedented tyrannical regime to submit the rebels but succeeded only in genocide and the turning over the regime and started their own rebellion. That resulted in an intricate situation carrying all symptoms of chaos. Truly, the regime maintained its existence but with continuously deteriorating life condition in Darfur region. The final result is an amalgamation of rebels from both sides to topple the regime at huge cost. The existence of Islamic Sharia Laws imposed by the Bashir regime is dubious. The separation of Darfur and Kordofan regions and birth of New Desert Nation is a feasible solution. That will add to current disintegration process Sudan endures.
Janjaweed, Political Disintegration, Sudan
________________________________________
4. The Impact of Privatization on State-Owned Enterprises Performance and Efficiency: Case Study of Sudan Airways
Antitrust Law and Policy Journal, Vol. 3, No. 21, February 28, 2011
Abstract
The current paper analyzes the impacts of privatization of Sudan air carrier, Sudan Airways. The hypothetical framework in this study is that alternative policies other than privatization are feasible. Sudan airways represents the sovereignty of the country carrying its flag, its objectives is in discrepancy with the foreign share holder objectives. The experience shows that privatization needs large amount of capital plus qualified managerial, technical, financial and marketing cadres. Pre-privatization, a reconstruction plan improved the performance of the company. That encourages more work to improve the efficiency. Sub-private companies performing on profit means can be created to increase the profit of the company, such as special flight, hotels and catering, cargo and any other companies. Mildest forms of privatization and load shedding may be possible in present circumstances. That means keeping state enterprises with the public sector and reforming them as the course to those concerned with efficiency of government services. Attaining social values subsidized prices sometimes is more profitable than commercial profits. Dominance of foreign share holders may affect the objectives of the firm as it is also vulnerable to corruptions.
Sudan Airways, State Enterprises, Privatization, Efficiency

5. The Impacts of Health Insurance System on Poverty Alleviation in Sudan: Case Study of the National Fund for Health Insurance in Khartoum State (2003-2009)
Health Economics Journal. Vol. 3, No. 52, 2011
Abstract
The current paper analyzes the role of health insurance in mitigating poverty severity in Sudan the case study of National Fund for Health Insurance-Khartoum State. It is highlighting the role of health insurance in lifting the cost-burden of medical treatment on poor families. The principle target is to introduce problems that negatively affect individuals and the range health insurance covers in the society. Moreover, the paper shall analyze the necessary and basic needs of poor families related to covering risk of illness. That includes health services that health insurance system provides. Field surveys were conducted for real data from selected population in Khartoum State and were analyzed, graphically and with cross-tabulation. The primary observed findings are that there is lack of database in relation to poor families in the state. However, health centers were available overall parts of the state and localities. That is an indicative of more awareness that reduces the cost of transportation for the poor. Based on the findings, it is recommended that it is necessary to promote health services of high quality with less cost. Wealthy people should be motivated to pay. Moreover, it is vital to set up a mechanism to improve living circumstances of the poor categories.
Sudan, Social Parameters, National Health Insurance, Income, Poverty Impacts

6. Challenges of Formal Social Security Systems in Sudan
Global Journal of Human Social Sciences (GJHSS), Vol. 11, No. 2, March 2011
Abstract
The present paper discusses issues of challenges of social security systems in Sudan. Following parameters advanced by ILO and UNCOSOC, those systems are analyzed. The conclusions focus on their applicability that faces axial difficulties mainly presented in the state of institutional interregnum facing the country. Moreover, it is important to revisit aspects of social cohesion that serves greater role in traditional social security in the Sudan.
Social Security, Sudan

7. Review of Relationships Between Trade Liberalization and Poverty in Developing Countries
Journal of Development Economics, Vol. 3, No. 54, March 17, 2011
Abstract
The current paper reviews relationships trade liberalization and issues of welfare in developing countries. The structure of WTO is historically reviewed then impacts on developing countries are foresighted. It is concluded that interests on the simple people level can be affected by trade restrictions and barriers. Disparities on income generated from trade are seen. That is obvious in the recent data on the siphoning of surpluses through the ruling elites. That is, especially true in developing countries that refrain from joining the WTO. The stunning news of hundreds of billions in dollars stuffed by certain leaders, dethroned or still ruling reveal unprecedented corruption. The primary aim of the WTO is to enhance trade between countries, globally with a minimization of possible hindrances or obstacles, with especial regard to allow small producers, farmers or herders to have a fair portion of their products. That calls for enforcing transparency parameters on members of the WTO. Moreover, such call for transparency cannot be achieved without democracy, whereas under totalitarian regimes such freedoms of production, justice, equal shares, press freedom and criticism are not feasible. Without application of true democracy, there shall always be crisis in production, civil wars, sabotage and dis-enhancement for small producers to produce.
International Trade, Developing Countries, Liberalization, WTO, Totalitarian Regimes

8. The Impacts of Social Justice and Wealth Distribution in Sudan
Law, Institutions and Development Journal, Vol. 9, No. 10, February 23, 2011
Abstract
The present paper is part of unpublished book that analyzes the political, social and economic collapse of the Sudan. Economic, social and distributive disparities triggered a process for the disintegration of the nation under the pretext of imposing Islamic Sharia Laws. A pronounced prominent conflict is manifested for new mechanisms to redistribute the wealth, especially after the secession of the country's Southern Region in January 2011. A leviathan regime extracted the economic surpluses which enhanced poverty, civil wars and diffused cries for further secession. The current paper bluntly proposes mechanisms to halt the sequestered civil rights and enhance a redistributive process.
Wealth Distribution, Social Justice, Sudan

9. Review of Civil Armed Conflicts and Impacts on Education in Darfur Crisis
Versions (2)
(211,136)
Review of Civil Armed Conflicts and Impacts on Education in Darfur Crisis
Immigration, Refugee and Citizenship Law Journal, Vol. 12, No. 33, April 5, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
Abstract
The study presented here depends on a field survey of refugees' camps in war strived Darfur region. The data are genuine from people and children. Besides my conclusions on impacts on education, I hereby profess that what happens on the camps generate only further economic destitute and entrenching social hatred for the Sudanese nation. I review and analyze here the reasons and causes of Darfur strive with the effects of the broad civil conflicts on education and human capital in the region. Variables implied here are central on education, which are related to the fragmentation of the previously known social cohesion. The conflict spread to all parts of the region. The prominent identified conclusion is that there is an institutional and structural interregnum that resulted in disappearing tools of governance. Field data were used to present the review and conclusions. Recurrent droughts, invisible development, struggles on land use and ownership led to flaring armed conflicts. The general services of health, water and education, though meager collapsed. Previous arrangements for the education of the nomads collapsed with the armed conflicts. Regular educational facilities deteriorated. In refugees' camps very little efforts were achieved. NGOs role in helping education with facilities, tools and funding were noticeable with less governmental efforts. The conclusions here imply that the collapse of social cohesion, continued armed conflict and expansions of refugees' camps will only hatch more violence and conflicts.
Human Capital, Education, Darfur, Civil Conflict, Social Cohesion, Refugees Camps, NGOs, Education

Labor and Human Capital Journal, Vol. 3, No. 54, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
Abstract
The study presented here depends on a field survey of refugees' camps in war srived Darfur region. The data are genuine from people and children. Besides my conclusions on impacts on education, I hereby profess that what happens on the camps generate only further economic destitute and entrenching social hatred for the Sudanese nation. I review and analyze here the reasons and causes of Darfur conflict with the effects of the broad civil conflicts on education and human capital in the region. Variables implied here are central on education, which are related to the fragmentation of the previously known social cohesion. The conflict spread to all parts of the region. The prominent identified conclusion is that there is an institutional and structural interregnum that resulted in disappearing tools of governance. Field data were used to present the review and conclusions. Recurrent droughts, invisible development, struggles on land use and ownership led to flaring armed conflicts. The general services of health, water and education, though meager collapsed. Previous arrangements for the education of the nomads collapsed with the armed conflicts. Regular educational facilities deteriorated. In refugees' camps very little efforts were achieved. NGOs role in helping education with facilities, tools and funding were noticeable with less governmental efforts. The conclusions here imply that the collapse of social cohesion, continued armed conflict and expansions of refugees' camps will only hatch more violence and conflicts.
Sudan, Darfur Conflict, Education, Human Capital, Nomads, Sedentaries, Destitution, NGO

10. Effects of Macroeconomic Variables on Inflation Rates in Sudan (1990-2008)
Macroeconomics, Prices, Business Fluctuations and Cycles Journal, Vol. 4, No. 39, March 28, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
Abstract
The current paper analyzes the effects macroeconomic variables on inflation in of Sudan. The selected data set was from 1990-2008. During that time there were significant changes in macroeconomic policies that had strong impacts on the performance of the Sudanese economy. A strong wave of hyperinflation was recorded during the beginning years of the 1990s. That was followed by relative stabilization and less inflation rates. Similar changes in the monetary policies were observed. Part of the 1990 implemented package of policies to solve the shortage of foreign exchange problem provoked increasing the supply of domestic currency. Free market economy was adopted through liberalizing trade and boosted exerting efforts to promote exports, besides adopting encouraging policies for the benefit of increasing productivity. The results reveal that there are negative effects of some macroeconomic variables on inflation, specifically GDP which records (β=6.0). Thus, GDP had the greatest effect on inflation. Money supply also positively affected inflation which reveals possible increases, governmental deficit financing and printing banknotes. The coefficient of determination (R2=94.0) verifies the model results. There was also a positive but weak and insignificant correlation between deficit financing and foreign currencies exchange rates. That corroborate conclusions that whenever exchange rate is determined by the market forces with weak economic productive base the impacts fall on income. It is possible that implementing floating exchange rates weakened the economic productive sectors of the country.
Macroeconomic Variables, Inflation, Deficit Financing, GDP

11. Analysis of Impact of Cash Out-Flow from the Banking Sector on the Sudanese Economy
Banking and Financial Institutions Journal, Vol. 3, No. 39, March 7, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
Abstract
Sudan as an example of LDCs the banking sector has been suffering from the problem of cash outflow over the last three decades, generating the following impacts: Loss of banking sector of its role of financial intermediation, cash scarcity in the banking sector, large government borrowings from unreal source of finance, thus, more inflation. The research attempts to specify the main determinants of cash outflow from the banking sector in Sudan (during the period 1972-2001). Hence, those revealing the major impacts of the cash outflow on the economic activity and rates of inflation. The research hypotheses were: (1) the Banks economic behavior of attainment reserves and expanding loans is main cause of cash outflow, (2) the government financial activity to cover its budget deficits, and the effective demand for money liquidity by the public are the main factors transmitting the impacts of cash outflow to the major macroeconomic variables (Money stock, aggregate demand and supply, cost of resource adjustment, and the rate of inflation), (3) Monetization of bank loans via allowing the growth in the effective demand for liquidity by the public directly leads to aggravation of inflation given the downward trend of money velocity, (4) Monetization of bank loans via financing the current deficits of the government, causes an inflationary pressures due to aggregate demand expansion, the real side of the economy will not be affected.
Using twelve equations-mathematical model systems with endogenous variables: the demand for effective money liquidity, the nominal and real growth of money stock, the demand for real balances, cost of resources adjustment, the aggregate demand, Gross Domestic Product GDP, the capital stock, the private investment, rate of inflation, bank loans, velocity of wide money, and the current budget deficit. Moreover, the general price level index, the real output trend and its actual deviations from that trend, quasi money, real depreciation of the local currency, the labor force size, the private savings and excess reserves held by banks as exogenous variables were used.
Based on annual data of Sudan economy for the study period, Iterative Weighted Two-Stage Least Squares (IWTLS) were applied through running an econometric computer program of E-views. The Results revealed that monetization in Sudan is mainly determined by the availability of Bank loans which in turn are affected largely by banks’ ability to form excess reserves, by dominated the government borrowing, and less by liquidity preference of the public. Moreover, Money stock has great endogeneity. The bank loans expansion in Sudan economy may induce liquidity preference or may cause inflation through inducement of monetary growth by the BOS. Inflation growth may exceed the monetary growth. So, real money growth falls and thus de-accelerates velocity and causes economic recession. On the other hand, the bank loans expansions encourage the government to incur large deficits thus pulling the aggregate demand and aggravate inflation with no effect on the real side of the economy. The research recommended controlling the process of monetization, through controlling banks’ ability to expand loans, good perception to the growth in liquidity preference, and sizing of the government borrowing. To control liquidity preference the government borrowing must be rationed and the policy must be of minimum impact on inflation. To avoid high liquidity preference associated with less velocity, the policy must be designed to facilitate bank loans to the prior productive sectors and the government borrowing must be rationed and real sources for financing deficits must be developed.
Macroeconomic Analysis, Banking, Cash outflow, Sudan

12. Statistical Approaches and System Dynamics
Econometrics, Mathematical Method and Programming Journal, Vol. 4. No. 35, May 09, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
Abstract
The current paper reviews statistical methods as integrated with the System Dynamics modeling. The methods described here are mostly statistical in nature, though some are outside the conventional definitions. The use of these techniques need not necessarily bring out positive results always but an attempt at changing the parameter values and averaging constants is worth trying. Even small changes in the model structure may bring out satisfactory results. Distribution lag function represents a general scheme for correlating current values of one variable with past values of another variable. Even if an explanation is found for establishing a relationship between two variables, the regression model described here is not in a position to explain why there is presence of delay. Models representing these variables are forced to give explanations for delays. In other words the models are forced to give a causal explanation why a delay occur between xt and Yt and specify its nature. A causal theory may provide an answer why xt affects Yt but fails to explain why there is a delay present. The accumulation provides answers but not the distributed lag functions. This shows that the accumulation forces System Dynamics modeler to provide a causal relationship for the dynamic behavior while the distributed lag approach overrides this aspect and considers only the correlation. Correlation approach can obscure errors in a model while causal explanation provides more points of contact with reality and makes corroboration or refutation more possible.
Statistical Analysis, System Dynamics, Distribution lag function, Correlations

13. Potentials of Irrigated Agriculture in Improvement of Food Security in Southern Sudan
Journal of Development Economics, Vol. 3, No. 68, April 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
Abstract
Southern Sudan population has chosen secession in January 2011 referendum and independence shall be declared next July. However, its food production capabilities are still hindered by weak or nonexistent infrastructure, meager labor-force and effects of long civil war that hampered development and destroyed agricultural schemes. The current paper reviews possible improvements of food production and security in the south as a cornerstone for future development in the future state. Introduction of specific crops is feasible to improve parameters of future economic sectors development. Maize is suggested as a staple crop to support traditional farmers. The provision of extension and plant protection services need to be strengthened in areas where maize is being cultivated. Moreover, management must be streamlined to cope up with the expected activities during the first expansion phase. Extensive training of all the categories working in agricultural development is the top priority. In order to improve productivity, high yielding crops varieties have to be released for cultivation in other ecological zones where research has shown that the conditions are suitable for maize production. The production relationships are invisible. Therefore, farmers have to be employed for production of the maize seeds by recognized research institutions in Southern Sudan. The current issue on land rights, land ownership have to be settled once and for all which may in turn encourage the investors to come to Southern Sudan. Most important is the improvement of the available credit to small-scale farmers as they are limited without government guarantee. Traditional farmers and small farmers in the semi-mechanized sector are risky clients for credit because of their unpredictable environment, low and fluctuating yields remote location and inadequate structures for making and support services. Nevertheless, small farmers would have substantial potential if it is were possible to increase average farm size, improved technology, access to credit provide better infrastructure such as roads and domestic water supply.
Secession, Southern Sudan, Food Security, Maize

14. Kleptocracy, Totalitarianism and Corruption
Institutions and Transition Economics Political Economy Journal, Vol. 3, No. 23, March 16, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
Abstract
The present paper is part of unpublished book divided into three interrelated manuscripts that analyze the collapse of the Sudan. The theory introduced here is that the regime was built on kleptocratic framework. That enhanced a rapid transformation of the values' system of the country and disintegration of its social cohesion. The result was a submission of the mass. Another strong tool was the subjugation of the press through detainment, exclusion and terrorization. The take over of the country's institutions enhanced wide spread corruption which can be described as system's inherent and cannot be ridden of as it is structurally protected. Destitute was rife and the dilemma of civil war produced more internally displaced who lived in the margins. The paper concludes that the legitimization of such systematic behavior rendered structural failure to the regime.
Civil War, Kleptocracy, Totalitarianism, Corruption

15. Economic Vision for Regional Nile River Basin Planning
Political Economy: Development Journal, Vol. 4, No. 42, March 07, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
Abstract
This paper examines a variety of approaches to the issue of Nile river Basin planning with a special reference to the model of The Permanent Joint Technical Commission of the Nile Waters between Sudan and Egypt (PJTC) and experiences from eleven Sub-Saharan African (SSA) River Basin Organizations. The paper also highlights the complexity of regional planning taking into consideration the River Nile unique situation. Furthermore the study stresses the need for a regional planning approach, and suggests the appropriate tools to achieve it.
Nile River, Planning, Sharing, Technical Commission

16. Totalitarianism, Economic Growth and Corruption
Microeconomics, Welfare Economics and Collective Decision-Making Journal, Vol. 3, No. 92, June 02, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
Abstract
In a strong sense, corruption is an epidemic that coexists with anthropogenic moral structure and behavior. However, the impacts of institutional corruption can lead to distortions in business cycles and drastic damages to a country's collective economic and social performance. In this essay, we summarize some research that explores causes and consequences of corruption. There are few theories of corruption. The limited availability of data subjects lead to many uncertainties. Still, other studies provide tentative evidence that corruption may seriously inhibit long-term economic growth and increase the inconsistencies of business cycles. Corruption is seen as a vice in a country, but we insist here that it is an epidemic unless cured by governments that should figure out effective ways to combat it. If unsuccessful, consequences are grave. Its infestation can threaten the existence of a nation.
Corruption, Business Cycle, Economic Inconsistency

17. Sudanese North-South Border Tribes, Economic Interactions and Seeds of Conflict
Conflict Resolution and Prevention Management
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Abstract
The crisis of Greater Darfur Region of Sudan extends to other regions as the South Sudan prepares for secession next July 2011. In the past eight years Sudan's crisis in Darfur was amplified by global news media all over the world. Civil conflict erupted, developed into armed rebellions and open uncontrolled war that enveloped the whole region. The current inflamed future borders between the south and north are also facing growing tensions. In this current paper we present some information on the what we see as the seeds of conflicts with the complicated tribal structures in both sides and expected disputes on land, borders and resources.
Conflict, Borders, Tribal Structure, Resources

18. Totalitarianism, Elections and Inevitable Demise
Political Institutions and Elections Journal, Vol. 4, No. 12, March 17, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
Abstract
The present paper is part of unpublished book divided into three interrelated manuscripts that analyze the collapse of the Sudan. The current paper concludes that the decision of the International Criminal Court to arrest President Bashir initiated a desire to legitimize his regime through rigging the election of 2010. The result was inevitable secession of its Southern part and the total revulsion of the people of his regime. That triggered a process for the disintegration of a tyrannical regime. The paper discusses how the elections conducted in 2010 were forged. That began a downward process of disintegration catalyzed by his threats of imposing strict Islamic Sharia Laws in the country after the secession of its Southern part. Pronounced and prominent conflicts erupted within the ruling elite. The imposed dogma by a hegemonic regime threatens the existence of the nation per se. The contesting voices demanded rights of sequestered economic resources, violated civil rights and genocides in the country's regions. The result is that the country is in de facto division and disintegration process. The generated vacuum of institutional interregnum enhances the failure of the state.
Tyranny, Elections, Institutional Interregnum, Demise

19. Referendum, Secession and Intermixed Tribal Structure in Western-Southern Sudan National, State and Local Government; Intergovernmental Relations Journal, Vol. 4, No. 55, April 27, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
Abstract
Tribal intermixtures and interactions between groups of Southern Kordofan and Northern Bahr Al Gazal provinces are wide and old. However, the previous coexistence that dominated one country provinces was torn down by calls for secession by the southern region of Sudan. The province of Abyei represents a pocket that tribal groups live in. Now it became of focal point of future entrenched war-candidate similar to India-Pakistan Kashmir. The decision of secession of Southern Sudan escalated to open calls for total independence that involved drawing borders and arguments to conflicts on specific regions bordering the two parts of Sudan. One of them is the Abyei region that two tribes demand as their own, the Arab Messeriya and the Dinka Ngok. The conflict was taken to international courts solutions were drawn in the presidency institution of Sudan. Nevertheless, they still continue even with agreements or solution sponsored by international mediators, United Nations and United States envoys. Armed clashes resulted in population displacements in addition to victims from both sides. However, other ethnic groups have historical ownership rights which were recognized by researchers, the Dago and the Shat. They were marginalized and deprived of land rights and inhibition on their great fatherlands. The current paper postulates the agreements and conventions were built on wrong and inhuman assumptions and solutions, which is that the region is inhabited solely and belongs to the Arab Messeriya and the Dinka Ngok, whereas the basic human concept is that land is for who inhabit and utilize it. Applying those short sighted solution is only fueling future and bloodier strive for existence from the marginalized and deprived anthropogenic groups who may have claims. In this paper we review some characteristics of the Abyei province and focusing on the nomadic tribe of Messirya.
Administration, Sudan, Messirya, Dinka, Intermix, Referendum, Secession, Conflict

20. Globalization and Economic Partnerships Effects on International Trade with Reference to Sudan
Versions (2)
Globalization and Economic Partnerships Effects on International Trade with Reference to Sudan
International Trade Journal, Vol. 3, No. 65, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
Abstract
Obvious contradictions and inconformity are manifested in two different worlds: a rich wealthy world, and a poor impoverished one. Economic inconformity is assured by many proving that the minority rich does not exceed 20% of the world population that retains the remaining 80% of the world economic resources and wealth. That leaves rest majority population less than 20% of resources and wealth. On the other hand the new global economic system deepens that economic variation not only between countries, but even between persons and communities. Global economic imbalance result from resources conflicts and wars generated by disparities and threatens necessary stability for feasible development. Advanced industrialize countries have responsibilities with international economic relations. However, that is an accumulated of trade imbalanced relations between various humanitarian communities. The situation creates economic imbalance that make a loser side of developing countries. They take the burden of seeking a solution and efforts in this race by first getting rid of the political and economic conflicts. The required diversification necessitates forming economic relations between themselves, hence themselves and advanced countries. The diversifications result in a complete change of different communities through international economic relations and move forward to form multilateral economic relation instead, establishing common markets and regional economic bodies. With the new millennium the international economy entered complicated stages that huge economic alliances, global financial markets, and monetary financial union such as European Union were set up. The analysis of economic relationships and their forms is carried out in order to reveal impacts on aggregate international economy and explore economic engines that can deepen the interdependence between all international economic combinations and how to conform a better way between the common interest of different countries. The case study on Sudan stands to embody the model of economic alliance between developing and rich countries and answer which is better. International economic relations apply to the regional economic gathering system as an amalgamated economic unions or bilateral economic partnership. The basic question of imploring possibilities to make conformity economic partnership between developing and rich countries is presented and how the international economy look on the long run whether such partnership can be established or not.
Globalization, Developing Countries, Privatization, Economic Partnerships, Hegemony
Globalization and Economic Partnerships Effects on International Trade with Reference to Sudan
Development Economics Journal, Vol. 3, No. 74, April 14, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
Abstract
Obvious contradictions and inconformity are manifested in two different worlds: a rich wealthy world, and a poor impoverished one. Economic inconformity is assured by many proving that the minority rich does not exceed 20% of the world population that retains the remaining 80% of the world economic resources and wealth. That leaves rest majority population less than 20% of resources and wealth. On the other hand the new global economic system deepens that economic variation not only between countries, but even between persons and communities. Global economic imbalance result from resources conflicts and wars generated by disparities and threatens necessary stability for feasible development. Advanced industrialize countries have responsibilities with international economic relations. However, that is an accumulated of trade imbalanced relations between various humanitarian communities. The situation creates economic imbalance that make a loser side of developing countries. They take the burden of seeking a solution and efforts in this race by first getting rid of the political and economic conflicts. The required diversification necessitates forming economic relations between themselves, hence themselves and advanced countries. The diversifications result in a complete change of different communities through international economic relations and move forward to form multilateral economic relation instead, establishing common markets and regional economic bodies. With the new millennium the international economy entered complicated stages that huge economic alliances, global financial markets, and monetary financial union such as European Union were set up. The analysis of economic relationships and their forms is carried out in order to reveal impacts on aggregate international economy and explore economic engines that can deepen the interdependence between all international economic combinations and how to conform a better way between the common interest of different countries. The case study on Sudan stands to embody the model of economic alliance between developing and rich countries and answer which is better. International economic relations apply to the regional economic gathering system as an amalgamated economic unions or bilateral economic partnership. The basic question of imploring possibilities to make conformity economic partnership between developing and rich countries is presented and how the international economy look on the long run whether such partnership can be established or not.
International Trade, Globalization, Disparities, Developing Countries, Economic Partnerships

21. Oil Discovery, Exploitation and Curse in Sudan
Political Institutions, Bureaucracies and Public Administration, Vol. 5, No. 39, March 17, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
Abstract
The present paper discusses the impacts of oil discovery in Sudan. The subsequent exploitation of oil enhanced gradual deterioration in the country's social cohesion and accelerated armed movements. That was triggered by complaints of ill-distribution of wealth, development and political power within the country. The secession of Southern Sudan is a strong example that was followed by louder calls for the secession of other parts. Transparency is rare commodity with the regime's structure that rendered the people into disbelief of the GNP volumes and suspicions of corruption in the oil production sector. Moreover, in rural areas, where there are environmental damages because of oil industry, very little was done to ameliorate the situation by trickle down mechanism or infusing direct development, services and education. There were louder calls for secession rather than attempts to reform the system. The conclusions are that eminent and de facto present changes are required.
Oil Curse, National Disintegration, Corruption, Secession

22. Economics of Water Use in Semi-Arid Environment: Darfur Case Study
Emerging Markets Economics, Environmental and Social Aspects Journal, Vol. 2, No. 24, March 15, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
Abstract
Environmental, climatic and economic human influences contribute to the problem of water scarcity in arid and semi-arid areas of the world, particularly in the less developed countries. This has impeded economic development in these regions. Thus, the call is for better methodological approaches for investigating the problem from an interdisciplinary perspective and at a local scale, i.e., the bottom-up approach. This study investigates the nature of water use in a selected drought-inflicted village and develops an analytical framework for assessing the water demands of alternative economic development scenarios. A review of hydro-climatologically characteristics, land use practices, and technological development provides information on water resources availability and human activities in the region. Surveys of human activities and water use in the study village, Kutum indicate the following conditions: water scarcity, unsustainable agricultural development, and subsequent food and economic insecurity. Further investigations indicate that groundwater is the most dependable source of water. Its use is dominated by agricultural activities especially irrigation and animal rearing. These are the most water intensive activities based on the ratio of water use to income generation. Results of the study provide useful information for the development of predictive models and water conservation strategies. Estimates of direct and total requirements of both economic and ecological commodities showed sparse sectoral interdependence within the economic system but a heavy dependence of the economy on the environment. Such dependence is more on water, a scarce commodity in this semi-arid environment. The most intensive users of water based on the direct effects include animal husbandry, building and irrigated agriculture; based on total effects are catering, building and animal husbandry, in descending order.
Sahel, Sudan, Darfur, Arid, Semi-Arid Zones, Water Use, Sustainability, Agriculture, Economic Sectors

23. The Political Economy and the Risks of Institutional Reforms in the River Nile Water Rights Institutional Economics Journal, Vol. 3, No. 33, May 27, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
Abstract
The quickly changing environment of the African countries necessitates reforms in common resources shared by many of continent's countries. Fresh water is one of the most important economic issues in the third millennia. The legendary and romantic River Nile's water is one of those issues. The current paper discusses some of those issues and concludes that collective work and actions are direly required by the River Nile riparian countries.
Water Rights, Reforms, River Nile, Riparian Countries

24. Appraisal of System Dynamics and Utility in the Economic Analysis
Macroeconomics Aggregative Models Journal, Vol. 4, No. 41, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
Abstract
In the real world, the theory of economic faces many obstacles in its analyses and interpretations. One of these problems is overlapping relationships between specific variables and difficulty of determining perfect formulation which contain all possible effect. Traditional statistics tools like regression models try to solve this problem in general case, but it's not enough to give us more information about structure of the system. The interaction between variables, feedback information, state of the system and variables behavior through time and effect of exogenous variables. One of the most important modern method depend on stock and flow diagram, causal loop diagram ,and simulation programming, is Dynamics models. dynamics model help us to determine the behavior of the accumulation variables through the time (Population, Cultivable Area, Cultivated Area, Expectation of Oil Reserve, Reserve of LPG, Expectation of Natural Gas Reserve, Total Saving, Emplacement, Capital and DEBT) these make many scenarios to solve the problems now and in the future.
Economic Analysis, Dynamic Systems, Models, Variables

25. Cloning Totalitarianism and Surviving Political Change in Sudan
Comparative Political Economy Journal, Vol. 5, No. 57, April 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
Abstract
Anomalies in totalitarian systems around the world call for analyses and conclusions to rectify or eliminate them. However, in this paper I do not postulate or conclude that totalitarianism was abruptly born out of the blue. The basic theory introduced here is that totalitarianism was born with elite educated class since independence and that totalitarianism was professed by them to be picked by the military institution. The elite class was racially concentrated and so independence the seeds of segregation that hatched many years later. The phenomenon was repeated once and twice. In contemporary situation, election were rigged which worsened the political situation. Protective mechanisms are required for future transformation to democracy and its possible sustainable endurance.
Cloning Totalitarianism, Elite, Disparities, Military Institution

26. Political Empowerment, Corruption and the Nation Crisis
Political Institutions, Bureaucracies and Public Administration Journal, Vol. 5, No. 38, March 16, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
Abstract
The present paper is part of unpublished book divided into three interrelated manuscripts that analyze the collapse of the Sudan. Previous military regime of Nimeiri metamorphosed from pure military coup de etat to puritanical Islamism and improvised the religious ultimate leadership by calling for Bayaa (oath of allegiance) to the Imam (himself). Subsequent coup de etat carried out by NIF (National Islamic Front) that metamorphosed to NCP (National Congress Party) improvised the empowerment system. The latter system legitimized empowerment through creating totalitarian elite, economic manipulation and dogmatic infusion. Suppression was contemporarily inevitable but prolonged bleeding of the economy created revulsion and eventual resistance. Empowerment legalized corruption that triggered a process for the disintegration of the tyrannical regime and national disintegration. A de facto national division generated vacuum of institutional interregnum that catalyzed the failure of the state.
Political Empowerment, Elitism, Economic Greed, Corruption, Nation Crisis

27. On Poverty, Employment, Food Security and Political Impacts in Sudan
Poverty, Income Distribution and Income Assistance Journal, Vol. 3, No. 7, April 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
Kamal M. Osman
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
Abstract
The study aims at analyzing the problem of poverty with reference to Sudanese conditions. Advanced solutions focus on financial, direct commodity provisions and Islamic Zakat. However, in the current vision we focus on the viability of promoting self-employment, expanding job opportunities in the public and private sectors in addition to generating income generation by improving development of agricultural and industrial activities. The society and specialized authorities are vital in extension work and programs genesis. The role of official programs, are axial for a successful implementation in addition to directing and helping NGO's in financing such targets. It is important to survey the relevance in devising a poverty-reduction strategy. Government and public actions should play in creating employment. That means that failures in labor markets and exploitive institutional arrangements may require the attention of public policy in support of the poor. There is also the risk of public institutional and organizational failure, especially in cases where governance problems and weaknesses in the legal system loom large, they undermine the country’s potential for economic development and reduce the scope for employment programs. Thus, poverty can be born out of political failures that result in negligence and social interregnum.
Poverty, Institutional Arrangements, Employment, Social Interregnum

28. Effects of Direct Foreign Capital on Economic Performance of Developing Countries: Case Study of Sudan (2000-2009) | Hide Abstract | Download |
International Finance Journal, Vol. 3, No. 71, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
Abstract
The performance of the Sudanese economy is an enigma of continuous failures even with all the potentials of country's resources. The current paper present impacts of direct foreign capital inflows to the Sudanese economy. It is observed that there were ample expansions after oil discovery and extraction in the country. However, signs are that such inflows slowed down after the global economic crisis. There also general failure of the Sudan Central Bank in controlling money supply and foreign currency exchange rates. That is probably due to multiple and unapplied policies or indecisive trends of floating foreign currency exchange rates or controlling them. Good policies were drawn but big questions are raised if they were really implemented. Strong signals are shown that directed foreign capital inflows did not find a welcoming grounds, so they were focused on oil industry or land acquisitions for quick profits of speculations.
Sudan, Foreign Direct Investment, Structural Adjustment, Strategies

29. Partnership Patterns and Trade Between Arab Countries
International Trade Journal, Vol. 3, No. 69, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
Abstract
There were always presumptions that economic integration and partnerships are strongly feasible between Arab and within Middle East countries. However, that was not apparent in real economic and social life. Our theoretical grounds here is that the potential framework for building such relationships, e.g., trade partnerships and agreements are generated by the developing global transformations and inevitable necessities. Establishing such partnerships can be feasible by applying the general outlines of successful experiences that can be applied in the Middle East.
Arab Countries, Middle East, Economic Integration, Partnerships

30. Dynamic Model for the Maximization of Dams Hydroelectric Power Generation
Econometrics, Mathematical Methods and Programming Journal, Vol. 4, No. 15, February 16, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
Alrayah Mohammed Ishag
Abstract
Water reservoirs are large pools of water created stream or river catchment's areas and torrential rains and for storing water for use in many ways, and perhaps electric power generation is one of the most important uses of these reservoirs and for agriculture. That is extremely beneficial considering a rare and limited economic resources. Applied stochastic processes model has been applied in the work of Roseires dam, in order to develop a system to generate the highest possible power in the resources available. The current paper aims to apply another model, which is a dynamic programming model to verify the possibility of developing the same system and thus generate the highest possible electricity from the reservoir.
Electricity Generation, Dynamic Model, Maximization

31. The Impacts of the Social Infrastructure on the Sudanese Civil Society Institutions: Case Study of Khartoum
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
Mohamed A. Osman
Al-Neelain University
Abstract
Contemporary Sudanese society endures many hardships which are manifested in economic retraction, inflation, recession and stagflation. However, social conflicts are also manifested in simple man's daily complaints to open rebellions. Most academicians agree on one point, that the society endures abnormal conditions. The current paper aims delves into a historical context of civil society as a concept in general which originated in the west. Next it displays differences between it and the Sudan supposing that there is unique experience appropriate to the Sudanese state of affairs. Therefore that possibility of creating an appropriate term that fully describes the social structures as well as settling the dispute resulting from the use of the term civil society. The study adopts the analytical historical comparative approach to reach its goal to describe the colonial period and the creation of Sudanese elite that affected the genesis of totalitarianism and subsequent civil disturbances. The study concluded that, the use of the term civil society in its western context has led to cognitive and methodological defect which has not been given the chance and time to mature in the country because of a series of coup de etat and totalitarian regimes.
Sudan, Social Structure, Endurance, Civil Society, Civic Institutions, Elitism, Rebellions, Conflicts

32. Sovereignty and Politics, Hegemony and Survival
Political Institutions, Non-Democratic Regimes Journal, Vol. 4, Issue 27, June 21, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
Abstract
Since the beginning of the year 2011, the political crisis of Sudan has expanded everyday. The inevitable secession of Southern Sudan amplifies with the chronic crisis of Abyei pocket between the north and the south. However, most analysts vocalize their astonishment at irrational official behavior as the de facto state of war that currently prevails in the country and call it pure stupidity. In this paper we analyze what is behind the regime structure and the conception of the Hakimya that makes their regime fortified from accepting rationality, resilience and sense of truth to respond for solutions and help of the international society .
Political Crisis, Hakimya, Totalitarianism, Resilience, International Society

33. Strategies of Conflict Resolution: Causes of War and Seeds of Peace in Abyei of Southern Kordofan
Institutions and Transition Economics, Political Economy Journal, Vol. 3, No. 42, May 30, 2011
Accepted Paper Series Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
Abstract
There are many intrinsic problems in the framework of the history of Sudan. Abeyi, is the most complicated and hard to resolve. The variability of income generating methods in the area was minimum, except for the claimed tribal and racial. Part of the theoretical framework of the thesis was that long coexistence between the tribal component, shared resources and kin-relationships could be important with the framework of conflict resolution. The recent economic background added to the conflict on resources which evolved from range and pasture strife to struggle to contain existing massive oil reserves. That enhanced central and southern Sudan governments to stands as parts of the confrontation. The introduced framework of Conflict Resolution comes as a fundamental pillar in political economic analysis. The present work analyzes the impasse of Abeyi that caste its shadow on the future of the Sudan as a nation. The main variables discussed in this thesis involve the historical backgrounds of the area, the tribal interrelationships and the civil administration of Abeyi. The analysis includes four digits-square parameters: win-win, win-lose, lose-win and lose-lose solutions. The model was applied to the Abeyi problem considering economic, social and political variables, with strong emphasis on the historical background of the area. Demographic effects were considered in the analysis and the solutions included also secession and joining the expected southern state, federal, confederal and independence. The results showed that it is possible to reach win-win solution accordingly. Civic administration stands as a cardinal variable that could play an imperative role in the solution. Based on confederal status, it is possible to amalgamate the demographic variance with the help of economic development.
North-South Sudan, Southern Kordofan Region, Abyei, Conflict and Strategies of Resolution

34. The Sudanese Agriculture Development, History, Policies and Sustainability
Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics Journal. Vol. 3, No. 82, May 06, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
Abstract
The crisis of Greater Darfur Region of Sudan was amplified by global news media all over the world. Civil conflict erupted, developed into armed rebellion and open uncontrolled civil war that enveloped the whole region. Many sources estimated the resultant lost lives at over 300,000 individual while the Sudanese government sources estimated them at 10,000. Displaced at refugees numbered over 3 millions and there were massive destruction of the scanty infrastructure in the region. Many reasons for the conflicts were given, however, most agree on that underdevelopment, lack of governmental plans to improve life, health, education and human capital were the true reasons. In the current paper we present some information on the whole country per se and then discuss some reasons and logics of previous development structure, deficiencies and mismanagement or ill-conceptions. It is constructed to deal with the historical background of agricultural development through the different decades, examine the role of agriculture in the Sudan economy, throw lights on the farming system and focusing on the role of foreign aids, finance, investment in the agriculture sector, and specific attention on the policies and sustainability.
Agriculture Development, Sudan, Historical Overview

35. Nomads of Savannah, the Messeirya Tribe of Sudan and the Abyei Referendum
Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics Journal, Vol. 3, No. 61, April 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
Abstract
The Sudanese nation turmoil continues and does not end with the secession of its Southern part after January's 2011 referendum. Conflicts on the border region of Abei flares with its complicated demographic structures. The region is inhabited by a majority population of Nomadic tribes of Dinka, African Nilotics and Messeirya Baggara of Arab origins. They shared land, water resources and the common property of living off livestock herding. Previous conflicts occurred under the flag of the Sudanese nation. The secession generated the need for both sides to belong either to the Northern or Southern Sudan which logically both selected his preference. The conflict expanded with the discovery of oil in the region. Even with the non-existent transparency, predictions of large amounts of reserves were evident. That gave additional dimensions of greed and struggle for resources. The conflict flared more when the International Court divided the region's land between them which allocated the Messeirya nomads of Bahr al Arab River and thus deprived the Messeirya of accessibility to the livestock. Moreover, the secession deprived them of accessibility to pastures in the South which supported their herds and was available for them for the past four hundred years. The intricacy of the situation reminds us of Cowboys Open Range legacy. Visible solutions do not exist for even if all Abyei was allocated to them they would still have to look for pasture within the borders of the newly born Southern Sudan state. A remote solution is suggested that tribes of the region should be exempted by both Northern and Southern States and granted free access. The conflict resolution also can include dual nationality. The Abyei region's oil can be divided between the south and the north Sudan. Moreover, it is suggested that the region should be granted a state of autonomy. Unless those suggestions are granted, open war between the two states of the North and South Sudan is eminently expected which shall be preceded by tribal blood sheds.
Southern Sudan Secession, Messeirya, Dinka, Nomadism, Resources Conflict, Oil Discovery, War

36. Reviewing Poverty Measurements and Analysis
Philosophy and Methodology of Economics, Vol. 2, No. 28, March 17, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
Abstract
The current paper reviews various measurements and analytical methods of poverty. Poverty can be construed as a state of necessity in which freedom is absent. That brings the question of the political, social and economic structure of a nation. The paper discusses issues of poverty conception, definitions, inequality and good governance. It is concluded here that improvements of incidence of poverty cannot be separated from the institutional and political make-up of a country.
Poverty Measurements, Analysis, Institutions

37. Using GARCH Model in the Analysis of Trade Liberalization and Poverty in Developing Countries
International and Comparative Law. Vol. 6, No. 32, March 14, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
Abstract
The current paper reviews impacts of trade liberalization on developing countries and levels of poverty. The expected impacts of multilateral trade liberalization on wage levels and subsequent poverty are implored. Empirical Auto-regression models are visualized to develop a different set of strategies and programs to provide real benefits to the poor with real benefits. It is concluded that GARCH updating formula takes the weighted average of the unconditional variance, the squared residual for the first observation and the starting variance and estimates the variance of the second observation. This input into the forecast of the third variance and so forth. Eventually, an entire time series of variance forecasts is constructed. Ideally, this series is large when the residuals are large and small when they are small. The likelihood function provides a systematic way to adjust the parameters to give the best fit. It is possible that the true variance process can differ from the one specified by econometricians. In order to detect this, a variety of diagnostic tests are available. Various tests such as tests for autocorrelation in the squares are able to detect model failures.
Trade Liberalization, Poverty, GARCH Model

38. Impacts of Southern Sudan Secession on the Hawazma Nomads of Southern Kordofan National, State, Local Government and Intergovernmental Relations Journal, Vol. 4, No. 64, May 16, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
Abstract
Tribal interactions between groups of Southern Kordofan and the Southern provinces of Bahr al Ghazal and Upper Nile are wide and old. The old coexistence habits that previously dominated a one country structure were torn down by a de facto status secession by the Southern region of Sudan. The South Kordofan represents a region where tribal groups live in. Now it represents a region of future candidate for war. The decision of secession of Southern Sudan for independence involved delayed drawing borders and arguments of conflicts on specific regions bordering the two parts of Sudan. In South Kordofan many tribes lived side by side. Currently, with the weakening and declination of the Central Government of Khartoum authority many calls are heard for new arrangement containing every tribe's border. The Arab Hawazma, Nuba mountains' and the Dinka Ngok are among those tribes where the expected conflict flare would ignite. Armed clashes resulted in population migration and displacements in addition to casualties from both sides. That resulted in disorder in the economic life and production modes of all the inhabitants.
Conflict Resolution, Southern Kordofan, South Sudan, Tribal Structures, Hawazma, Dinka Ngok

39. Empowerment and the State Crisis in Sudan
Law, Institutions and Development Journal, April 4, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
Abstract
Empowerment in democracies is presumed to be for and of the people. Food security, freedom to speak and write, jobs generation, adequate health services, etc. However, under totalitarian regimes it seems to be solely directed towards selective regime's cadres, piling state resources, corruption and heavy handed rule. Sudan has endured long years of austerity and economic crisis, during short democracies and long-termed dictatorships. The discovery of oil in the country was a golden chance that was missed to substantiate social and state cohesion. The current regime has declared the principles of empowerment, but the motto was central to specific echelons. The pristine religious flag was raised, not for an application, but as a totalitarian tool. Constitutional rights, institutional structures and humanitarian basics were ignored. Transparency in resources management and public administration was totally absent. Subsequent institutional interregnum was evident and the result was unprecedented legalized corruption that engulfed the whole state and became the seed of demise. The regime seems to have lost the momentum with the undeclared negative resistance and hidden anger. The Southern region referendum result was an overwhelming ballot of selecting secession. The strong winds of civil conflict threatens the country's structure because of the collapse of its superstructure and loss of credibility and demise looms with the weak economic productive base the impacts fall on income.
Empowerment, State, Superstructure, Politics, Demise

40. Analysis of the Educational Statistics of the Sudanese Secondary Certificate | Hide Abstract | Download |
Labor and Human Capital, March 30, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
Abstract
In the past two decades many voices were raised calling for corrections, restructuring and improvements of the Sudanese educational system. Complaints focused on the weakness of university students. However, their weaknesses were traced back to the elementary, secondary and high secondary educational phases. Economic restrains, lack of facilities and meager numbers of qualified instructors were pointed out as the prime causes. However, in this paper were hypothesize that besides those reasons basic impediments were entrenched in the whole educational system. The metamorphosis the Sudanese educational system has foreseen in the early 1970s and 1990s have distorted students knowledge base. Changing the system into purely Arabic based and partially abolishing English language weakened a well-known and strong system Sudan has known for generations. The current paper analyzes those effects and review some parameters to contain them. It is concluded here that interventions by lowering the students' pass mark rates have affected their knowledge and education capabilities. It is giving them false sense of passing from an educational phase to another. However, the result is worse knowledge transferred into another educational phase and then to the university. The result is like Zeno or Achilles paradox and a worse graduate education.
Education, Secondary Schools, Rates, Achievements

41. Economics of Water Use for Commodity Production in Scarcity Arid Regions: Kutum, Darfur Development Economics Journal, Vol. 3, No. 49, March 10, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
Abstract
This paper investigates water use in a rural village in semi-arid of Darfur region. Water use is viewed from the perspective of four production sectors: agriculture, rural industry, trade and services as well as domestic requirements: drinking, cooking and sanitary uses. Water for these uses may be from three sources: rain, surface and underground water. Surveys indicate that groundwater use is dominated by agricultural activities including irrigated vegetables and grains, tree crops, and animal rearing. A ratio of water use to income generated is used as a measure of water intensity compared across activities and commodities. Agricultural commodities, irrigated vegetables, grains and trees, are the most water intensive. The results provide useful background information for the development of predictive models and water conservation strategies. It presents an analysis of water use in a drought-inflicted of Darfur as preliminary findings of a research project whose objective is to assess the implications of alternative rural development scenarios for water use and water scarcity.
Water Use, Commodity Production, Darfur, Sustainability

42. Empowerment, Corruption, Hoarding, Economic Chaos and Political Demise in Sudan Institutions and Transition Economics Political Economy Journal, Vol. 3, No. 51, June 27, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
Mohamed A. Osman
Al-Neelain University
Abstract
In a country on the eve of losing one third of its land, 80% of potential natural resources and 75% of external exports value, Sudan's economic future seems gloomy. Many opinions were given for economic solutions after the Southern Sudan secession. However, that does not support a theoretical framework that those are the only reasons for the expected economic collapse. Our theory here is that such collapse already happened because of economic mismanagement, corruption and hoarding initiated by the calls for empowerment and carried out by the regime's members. Such acts extended to the banks, economic institutions and randomized privatization. The symptoms of collapse and results were long ago brewing but strongly manifested after the global economic crisis. The crescendo escalated with political crisis. The paper concludes that it is essential and inevitable for any economic rectifications to restructure the governmental buildup and call for technocratic executives to carry out amendments. Unless that is done, it is expected that economic full collapse shall rein the country after July 2011, the date of the Southern Sudan secession.

43. Political Mess, Lost Chances and Dark Future
Political Institutions and Non-Democratic Regimes Journal, Vol. 4, No. 22, May 18, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
Abstract
The present paper advances a theory that totalitarian regimes eventually acquire self-destructive urge that resembles suicide. Gradually, under the present international conceptions, masses pressures, the United Nations Referendums and applications of the rules and laws of human rights, such regimes are isolated. In an economically integrated world it becomes increasingly to live in a closed economy paradigm. That increase difficult economic and social for their people. Such situations generate a process of suffering and dissatisfaction's. It is more feasible that in such situation an internal disintegration process may start with disastrous human impacts.
Totalitarian Regimes, Self Destruction, Integration, Human Rights, Impacts

44. Surveying HIV/AIDS Epidemic in Khartoum State with Reference to Economic Impacts Health Economics Journal, Vol. 3, No. 43, April 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
Abstract
The paper reviews incidence of HIV/AIDS on international levels and then in Khartoum state during the period (2003-2007). The main objective was to study the situation of HIV/AIDS state through a sample of 1439 of volunteers for the three selected blood testing and counseling centers in Khartoum, Omdurman and Khartoum North teaching hospitals. The data of the study were collected from secondary source namely the registered information about volunteers after testing blood for HIV. The data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics, chi-square test for dependency between demographic variables and HIV/AIDS incidence, and logistic regression model to discover the effect of predictors variables on the dependent HIV/AIDS incidence. The infected percent is found to be very high in Khartoum center (36.0), 33.5 for Omdurman center. The incidence rate of HIV/AIDS was found to 14.3 for Khartoum North center. The logistic regression model results have concluded social status, Occupation, and education level affect the HIV/AIDS incidence Khartoum state. The trends of the disease during 2007 have indicated that, the pandemic is at increasing rate for both sexes males and females positive although the positive cases for males were greater than females positive cases, except in one or two months. The study recommended that there must be assessment for the current situation of the HIV/AIDS so as to construct strategic plan to stop or eradicate the spread among the people mainly adults. The focus is on the HIV/AIDS in Khartoum state during the period (2003-2007). Its main objective was to study the situation of HIV/AIDS through a sample of volunteers for the selected blood testing and counseling centers in Khartoum, Omdurman, and Khartoum North teaching hospitals. The data of the study were collected from secondary source namely the registered information about volunteers after testing blood for HIV checking Data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics, chi-square test for dependency between demographic variables and HIV/AIDS incidence, and logistic regression model to discover the effect of predictors variables on the dependent HIV/AIDS incidence. The infected percent is found to be very high in Khartoum center (36.0), 33.5 for Omdurman center. The incidence rate of HIV/AIDS was found to 14.3 for Khartoum North center. The trends of the disease during 2007 have indicated that, the pandemic is at increasing rate for both sexes males and females positive although the positive cases for males were greater than females positive cases, except in one or two months. The study recommended that there must be assessments for the situation of the HIV/AIDS so as to construct strategic plan to stop or eradicate the spread among the people mainly adults.
AIDS/HIV, Africa, Sub Sahara, Sudan, Khartoum, Socioeconomic Impacts, Political Crisis

45. Coup De Etat, Fraud, Counterfeited Elections and the Art of Tearing a Nation
Public Choice, Analysis of Collective Decision-Making Journal, Vol. 4, No. 85, May 05, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
Abstract
The current political situation in Sudan has deteriorated with the secession of its Southern part, the Darfur dilemma and the growing public feelings of deprivation, political disparities, elitism that possess the whole country. However, evidence proves that the situation is an accumulation of six decades that passed after the so-called political independence of Sudan. The Sudanese political class had chances that were wasted and signs are that the international society will not allow more of such political chaos, lost opportunities and costs of supporting a nation that was dependant on currently unaffordable handouts. Sudan saw prolonged problems, two civil wars in the South between 1955-1971 and 1984-2005 that killed four million lives and massive economic cost. It became the top country in its internally displaced people. The theory presented here is that Sudan did not form a state during this period (1956-2011). The last state it during modern times saw was during the Christian epoch. However, we point out that such opinion is incomplete because the modern state appeared with the Mahdists of 1884-1899 even with their primitive rule. The feelings of being a nation state were solidified with the British occupation which did not diminish even with the withdrawal of the Egyptians army in 1924. Such feelings were increased with the declaration of independence from within the parliament in 1956. However, it started diminishing with the inception of a series of coup de etat and the military grasping power with short intervals of pretentious democracies. That process per se has frozen the evolution of the Sudanese state then halted it which led to its decaying and death. Eliminations of the basics of the infrastructure and superstructures of the nation, e.g., resulting in institutional chaos, diffusing corruption, destroying constitutional structures, decomposition of the intellectual activities through suffocation and degrading the social movements of their components. Thus, the nation was deprived its legacies which can form a nation. Under military totalitarianism such process continued where governments were cloned without forming roots and basis for a real state in Sudan. That prepared the grounds for strong possibilities of the disintegration and secession of other parts of the country. (And I looked, and behold a pale horse: and his name that sat upon him was Death and Hell followed with him. And power was given unto them over the fourth part of the earth, to kill with sword, and with hunger, and with the beasts of the earth. The Holy Bible. The Book of Revelation: Chapter 6, Verse 8.)
Coup de Etat, Military Regimes, Elitism, Constitutional Corruption, Institutional Demise, Disintegration

46. Oil Explorations and Socioeconomic Impacts of Production in Sudan
Energy Law and Policy Journal, Vol. 3, No. 15, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
Abstract
The current paper reviews issues of oil exploration, extraction and production in Sudan. It is presumed that the oil curse has doomed the country's cohesion as a state and accelerated its foreseen fragmentation. The referendum on secession of Southern Sudan is phase one. Other regions complaints of underdevelopment, negligence of the central government are high. Gradually, they turned into reasoning from federation to secession solutions. The analysis conducted in this paper detail facts of disposing with oil revenues during the past years. Very little amounts were diverted towards, health services, education, employment and job generation. The conflicts on wealth distributions were evident in the political arena. Moreover, the Sudanese economy saw downward trends throughout the past years. Inflation rates escalated and impacts on the global financial crisis were reflected in deep stagflation. There were noticeable deterioration in the other economic sectors. The country's small industrial sector became dead. The agricultural sector was unable even to provide enough food for the country's population. Unemployment rates escalated and there were huge deficits in the balance of payments. The performance of the Sudanese economy, en total, suffered a strong wave of hyperinflation. However, the present economic status of the country cannot be described as suffering from the Dutch disease or Nigerian syndrome. It is apparently a case of mismanagement and ill-allocation of oil resources gained through the past ten years.
Oil, Unemployment, Social Injustice, Secession, Poverty

47. Analysis of the Impacts of Money Supply on Income and Prices in the Sudan
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
Abstract
The current paper reviews impacts of money supply on income in of Sudan. In 1990 a package of policies was implemented to solve the shortage of foreign exchange problem. Free market economy was adopted through liberalizing trade and exerting efforts to promote and boost exports, besides adopting encouraging policies for the benefit of increasing productivity. Whenever exchange rate is determined by the market forces with weak economic productive base the impacts fall on income. Implementing floating exchange rates were implemented to increase exports. Commercial banks were encouraged to extend finance to the export sectors, which was considered as a priority sector in all government policies. Trade started to flourish and bilateral agreements between Sudan and other countries started to thrive. With these radical changes the Bank of Sudan issued the circular in which the free and the official markets were abandoned and the exchange rate determined through a committee affiliated to the Sudan's banking association. Dealing in foreign exchange was allowed through the official channels. Restrictions on the flow of foreign currencies were abolished and opening free accounts was allowed. This unified free market-rate that dominated all dealings. Policies aimed at filling the gap in the trade balance through encouraging exports and restricting imports. The latter objective, reducing imports, was pursued through banning the importations of ten commodities. That reflected on the real exchange rate, the experiment of the paralleled exchange rate policy contributed in accelerating the economy growth of country. However, authorities canceled the official and the commercial bank exchange rate and reintroduced a unified official regime under which the rate of exchange was freely determined in the interbank market by the independent actions of the commercial banks. That had impacts on market exchange rates for foreign currencies and a set back to income per capita. Official foreign exchange requirements were met through the compulsory sale to the Bank of Sudan by the commercial banks of 50% of proceeds at the commercial banks selling rate. The imports policy remained unchanged, where all imports were allowed except wine and strong drinks. The result was an environment of economic uncertainty that leads to gradual downfall of the productive activity.
Macroeconomics, Money Supply, Sudan, Inflation, Income, Exchange Rates

48. The Effects of Trade Liberalization and Partnerships on the Sudanese Economy: Analysis of COMESA
International Trade Journal, Vol. 3, No. 50, March 14, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
Abstract
The current paper reviews impacts of trade liberalization on developing countries and levels of poverty. The expected impacts of multilateral trade liberalization on wage levels and subsequent poverty are implored. Empirical Auto-regression models are visualized to develop a different set of strategies and programs to provide real benefits to the poor with real benefits. It is concluded that GARCH updating formula takes the weighted average of the unconditional variance, the squared residual for the first observation and the starting variance and estimates the variance of the second observation. This input into the forecast of the third variance and so forth. Eventually, an entire time series of variance forecasts is constructed. Ideally, this series is large when the residuals are large and small when they are small. The likelihood function provides a systematic way to adjust the parameters to give the best fit. It is possible that the true variance process can differ from the one specified by econometricians. In order to detect this, a variety of diagnostic tests are available. Various tests such as tests for autocorrelation in the squares are able to detect model failures. It is concluded here that there are negative impacts of trade liberalization and agreements such as COMESSA on the Sudanese economy.
Trade Liberalization, COMESA, Poverty, Economic Impacts

49. Applying System Dynamics Model for Macroeconomic Analysis of Yemen
Econometrics, Mathematical Methods and Programming Journal, Vol. 4, No. 38, May 19, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
Abstract
The purpose of the System Dynamics method is to study the relationship between structure and behavior in non-linear, dynamic systems. In such systems, the significance of various structural components to the behavior pattern exhibited, changes as the behavior unfolds. Changes in structural significance modify that behavior pattern which, in turn, feeds back to change the relative significance of structural components. We develop a macroeconomic model through which we can study the characteristics of the feedback between structure and behavior. This model is based on multiplier-accelerator model, and inventory – adjustment model. This work is an extension of the work by Nathan Forrester on the use of basic macroeconomic theory to stabilize policy analysis. The design of a System Dynamics model begins with a problem and a time frame that contribute to the problem. They are listed and their structural relationships sketched the factors with particular attention to characterizing them as levels (or stocks) and rates (or flows) that feed or drain them. Levels and rates must alternate in the model; no level can control another without an intervening rate or any rate influence another without an intervening level.
Macroeconomic Analysis, System Dynamics, Yemen, Monetary Supply, Economic Models

51. An Analysis of Behavioral Growth Rates in Iraq Pre-Second Gulf War
Political Analysis Quantitative Methods Journal, Vol. 5, No. 7, February 14, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
Abstract
The present quantitatively paper analyzes the behavioral growth rates in Iraq pre-second Gulf war. Changes in the technical capacity building and absorption were dynamically developing in high rates. Data were utilized from available resources, though more recent quantitative work is not available because of the war following impacts. Comparisons are unavailable but the results show that it was possible to gain advantages with what may be called industrial progress at that time.
Growth, Iraq, Pre-war

52. Land Dispute, Property Hoarding and Social Uprising in Sudan
Property, Citizenship and Social Entrepreneurism Journal, Vol. 8, No. 21, June 23, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
Mohamed A. Osman
Al-Neelain University
Abstract
Under the present civil Sudanese conditions, the country endures many hardships which are manifested in economic retraction, inflation, recession and stagflation. However, those are not the sole reasons for the sporadic conflicts that infest the people. Illegitimate property and economic hoardings seem to be inflaming the Sudanese societies. Social conflicts are manifested in simple man's daily complaints to open rebellions. Most academicians agree on one point, that the society endures abnormal conditions. The current paper delves into land disputes in the South Kordofan region and displays there anomalies affecting the Sudanese state of affairs. The economic and social structures are affecting the civil society which is drained of the basic available capital and livelihood, land. The study concluded that it is necessary to promote new ways of protecting land rights. If not more civil mutinies will erupt.
Sudan, Kordofan, Land Rights, Disputes, Civic Administration

53. Cowboy and Bandits, International Society and National Disintegration
International, Transnational and Comparative Criminal Law Journal, Vol. 5, Issue 31, June 29, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
Abstract
The political crisis of Sudan is amplified everyday with the expansion of civil conflict from Darfur to Southern Kordofan state. The inevitable secession of Southern Sudan is threatened by the chronic crisis of Abyei pocket between the north and the south that saw open war between the two opponents; the Sudanese army and Popular Liberation of Sudan. Nevertheless, the Attorney General of the International Criminal Court, Ocambo vocalizes more concerns of humanitarian sufferings and war crimes that he claims to be continuing despite of peaceful negotiations. Such situation seems irrational with the de facto state of war that currently prevails in the country.
Secession, War, ICC, Civil Crisis

54. Human Rights Violations, Missing Justice, Civil Conflicts and Darfur Political Future
Transitional Justice Journal. Vol. 2, Issue 18, June 10, 2011
Series Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
Abstract
This paper resets some facts about Darfur civil conflict. It is a brief statement of facts integrated with what I describe here as the missing justice. Violations of human rights are undeniable, but channels of achieving justice are absent. It is my conclusion here that the escalation of civil conflicts in Darfur, from armed gangs to rebel groups and then to open civil wars, were instigated by concrete evidence of human rights violations, atrocities and genocides. But most of all it was instigated by the inability of the concerned authorities to carry out justice which was lost in the maze of deception, lies, ignorance and fear of application. The paper predicts that this will eventually lead to the separation of the Darfur region, probably along with most of Western Sudan. The created new state will be a hostile country with the remaining Sudan.
Darfur, human rights violations, civil complaints, missing justice, separation

55. Notes on Across-Border Resources and Livelihood of the White Nile's Tribes Region after Secession of Southern Sudan
Conflict Studies Journal, Vol. 5, No. 56, June 02, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
Abstract
Secession of Southern Sudan is a de facto situation which has to be dealt with wisdom to avoid future clashed that may escalate. Additionally, the mutual use of resources is inevitable for both sides. The tribal structure in both South and North necessitate establishing new code of dealing with the new situation. However, it should be based on the Tribal Civil Administration (TCA) which has better communication and accessibility with the people of both sides. The new secession should not bar people from both sides to live, work or rear their livestock in traditional old ways. Thus, it is necessary to strengthen the TCA role in the public relations and diplomacy. Building up and completing previously started governmental infrastructure, e.g., roads, schools, clinics should re-commence. Such measures can strengthen relationships and minimize probabilities of conflicts and future civil war.
Southern Sudan, Secession, White Nile, Tribal Civil Administration, Infrastructure

56. Theories of International Trade and Impacts of Hegemony
International Trade Journal, Vol. 3, No. 95, May 18, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
Mohamed A. Osman
Al-Neelain University
Abstract
This paper examines a variety of approaches to issues of globalization and international trade. It was implicated by early researchers and academicians that there are basic rules for international trade and labor division that should be investigated in order to maximize global trade. Within those bases, even though there were theoretical differences there is axial rule, that fair and equality should be cared for. A trickle down mechanism is fundamental to ameliorate internal and external trade capacities between advanced and developing economies.
Trade Theories, Globalization, International Labor Division, Trickle Down

57. Impacts of the Political Regime on the High Education System of Sudan
Public Economics Journal, Vol. 6, No. 21, May 9, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
Abstract
In totalitarian systems, especially that of dogmatic nature, education is often targeted to be devoted for the preparations of young generations and dedicating them to the regimes' structure and principles. However, such method negatively influences the educational system and renders the efficient inputs to students. The results can be manifested in deteriorations of knowledge, human capital development and the future performance per se.
Totalitarianism, Education, Human Capital

58. Racism and the State, Discrimination and Disintegration
Political Behavior, Race, Ethnicity and Identity Politics Journal, Vol. 5, 55, May, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
Abstract
Totalitarianism integrates with power monopoly, in all cases. However, when it is born out of hybrid of the military institution and a dogmatic elite, it turns more into a stratocracy. Within that frame, the state and the military are the same and the governmental positions are occupied by military leaders helped by the elite's bureaucracy. The definition implies that stratocracy is a government headed by military chiefs. It is not similar to a military dictatorship where the military's political power is not enforced or even supported by other laws. Its political power is supposed to be supported by law and the society. It does not have to be autocratic by nature in order to preserve its right to rule. In military dictatorship political power resides with the military. Non-similar to stratocracy, is a state ruled directly by the military dictatorships as a result of a coup d'état. They may be official or unofficial and may not qualify as stratocratic. Military dictatorships contrast with communist States where the center of power rests among civilian party officials. Dictatorship is government that has the power to govern without consent of those being governed. Dictatorship is a contrast to democracy as a government that has the power to govern without consent of those being governed. However, even though stratocracy is expected to be born out of a refined military stature, the current situation in Sudan implicates that it is more related to racial selectivity and dogmatic system that branded the military institution with unreliability in its function as the guardian of the regime rather than being the protector of the nation.
Stratocrcy, Totalitarianism, Dictatorship, Racism, Disintegration

59. Roots of Conflict, Arabs, Muslim and Historical Resources Conflicts
Conflict Studies Journal, Vol. 5, No. 54, May 31, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
Mohamed A. Osman
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
Abstract
The yesterday's news of death Al Quaeda leader Ben Laden was shocking to many in the Islamic and Arab societies and brought joy to others in the Western world. However, instead of referring to the conflict as religious, dogmatic or cultural, we want to reproduce some other historic literature that has taken resources, disputes and economic as the base for the strive that has damaged the world's economic and social structure. We emphasize that the roots were entrenched long time ago and were dug deep by both dogmatic views, Islamic and Christian. Internationalization of trade and globalization between unequal parts triggered more fear within the weaker economies and generated the terror phenomenon. Conceptual coexistence is needed more that arms to overcome the past grudges and future sufferings.
Conflict, Islamic, Arabs, West, Resources Disputes

60. Hegemony, Islamic and Arab Economic Blocks Versus Globalization and International Trade Agreements
National, State and Local Government Intergovernmental Relations Journal. Vol. 4, No. 59, May 04, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
Mohamed A. Osman
Al-Neelain University
Abstract
This paper examines the concept of hegemony and its historical application on the Arabic and Islamic countries. It is foreseen that has long path applied by the Western countries as disclosed by trade applications and history of economic thought. Impacts on Arabic and Islamic countries were visible in terms of trade, balances and persistent debts. A strong tool is evident with the called for integration, interdependence and the generated dependency syndrome. The establishment of that mechanism depends on a theory which we present as the Hegemonic Stability. The Arabic and Islamic countries did not succeed to form their effective economic blocks in order to counter such hegemonic effects because of their internal political structure which affect the structure of their international trade and economic benefits.
International Trade, Hegemony, Economic Blocks, Dependency Syndrome, Hegemonic Stability

61. Short Review of Rural Development in Sudan
Development Economics Journal, Vol. 3, No. 84, April 28, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
Abstract
Current political crisis in Sudan have roots in lags of economic development and mismanagement. The result is food insecurity degeneration of the country's mainstay, the agricultural sector and underdevelopment of it secondary sector. The paper review issues on historical development of the agricultural sector with recent data.
Macroeconomic Policy, Rural Development, Agricultural Schemes, Political Crisis, Poverty

62. The Economics of Management and Financial Systems in Public Projects in Sudan
Journal of Development Economics, Vol. 3, No. 79, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
Abstract
The current paper examines the problems facing public projects in Sudan in general. The paper discusses the reasons of establishing these projects and the connection between their performance, the administrative policies, the systems and laws of public policies. An analysis of field collected data concerning elements and systems affect the efficiency of public projects. Questions are raised of why efficient employees leave their positions in the public projects and seek employment in the private sector. Data analyses suggest that dissatisfaction emanate from management and administrative ill-practices, hegemony, corrupt authoritative high personnel and structures, establishment and management codes, low salaries for the lower and middle management staff and misinterpreted authoritarianism. Recommendations center on the necessity to improve salaries, improvise new codes and grow the spirit of group work.
Public Projects, Institutions, Mismanagement, Administration, Salaries, Group Spirit

63. The Structure of the Yemeni Economy (1990-2008)
Macroeconomics, National Income and Product Accounts Journal, Vol. 4, No. 11, April 18, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
Abstract
Literature concerning the Yemeni economy is rarely presented. The current turmoil and calls for changing the regime are delivered over media and complaints of economic weaknesses, corruption and diminishing per capita income promote such efforts. In the present paper, I introduce real data about the Yemeni economy and draw its structure and growth for the years 1990-2008. The general features reveal that even though with the structural adjustment policies applied to rectify the Yemeni economy, there were continuous increases in inflation rates throughout the examined period. Oil revenues did not help to improve the balance of payments neither the persistent budget deficits. That amplified the chronic external debt crisis. The evident characteristic of Yemeni economy is the total dependence on oil export with its fluctuating international prices and the lack of supportive non-oil products. The latter diminished in their sharing in the gross national production. Thus, the Yemeni economy was dependable on importing more food which resulted in less consumption purchasing power for its population that stood to endure global increases in food prices. It is not surprising that the primary calls for the current demonstrations, calls to change the government and dethrone the 33 years governing president started with calls for social and economic benefits and elimination of corruption. More evidence is clear that there are see pages of resources through governmental ever and accounted for increasing expenditures.
Yemen, Macroeconomics, Expenditure, Oil, Per Capita Income, Deficits

64. Secession and Tribal Conflicts in Western Sudan
Comparative Political Economy Journal, Vol. 5, No. 58, April 25, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
Abstract
The demand for secession of Southern Sudan escalated to open calls for total independence that involved drawing borders and arguments to conflicts on specific regions bordering the two parts of Sudan. One of them is the Abyei region that two tribes demand as their own, the Arab Messeriya and the Dinka Ngok. The conflict was taken to international courts, solutions were drawn in the presidency institution of Sudan. Nevertheless, they still continue even with agreements or solution sponsored by international mediators, United Nations and United States envoys. Armed clashes resulted in population displacements in addition to victims from both sides. However, other ethnic groups have historical ownership rights which were recognized by researchers, the Dago and the Shat. They were marginalized and deprived of land rights and inhibition on their great fatherlands. The current paper postulates the agreements and conventions were built on wrong and inhuman assumptions and solutions, which is that the region is inhabited solely and belongs to the Arab Messeriya and the Dinka Ngok, whereas the basic human concept is that land is for who inhabit and utilize it. Applying those short sighted solution is only fueling future and bloodier strive for existence from the marginalized and deprived anthropogenic groups who may have claims.
Conflict Resolution, Messeriya, Dinka Ngok, Dago, Shat, Abyei, Secession, Sudan, Conflict

65. An Overview of Economic Patterns of Partnerships Between Developing and Rich Countries with Special Reference to USA and Sudan
International Trade Journal, Vol. 3, No. 70, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
Abstract
The current paper presents unique approach to economic analysis where the theoretical framework applied here postulates that relationships between rogue countries, such as Korea, Syria, Iran and Sudan necessarily are potential parts for an economically mutual and viably profitable partnership. The paper reviews such relationships, especially between African and European countries like Lume and Kotono. I first present a review of existing trade and economic partnerships. Next, I discuss economic relationships between developed and developing countries. It is revealed that in some instances, the predatory nature of those agreements and partnerships are manifested which atrophy the basic potentials of the weaker partners to maximize their productive abilities. Hegemonic patterns are generated and transmuted. The ramifications are clear, that partnerships are rather ancillary dependence. Long lasting and chronic relationships lead to economic degenerations and eventual burden on the stronger partner. Subsequent impacts on the weaker partner nurture totalitarian and authoritarian regimes. Results are revealed by lower standards of living, less per capita income, poverty, destitute and civil strives. Equal partnerships are less harmful to developing economies and can produce better benefits to all parts. Sudan and the United States of America feasible partnership are visualized. That is instead of the current descriptions of Sudan being rouge and USA being oppressive. The historical obscure food security situation of Sudan necessitates long and lasting partnerships with high food producing countries.
The newly revealed oil and minerals necessitates acquiring technological know-how. The dependence on Chinese technology in oil extraction resulted in contamination of vast range and pasture lands which threaten the country with another civil war. Sustainable oil extraction methods are nonexistent and dubiousness engulfs oil, gold and other minerals mining deals. The paper concludes that such positive partnerships are mutually beneficial especially with transparent and democratic countries. Moreover, it is expected that it should be a process leading eventually to transfer intelligent knowledge, modern technology, rectify resources management, improve administrative abilities and render better incomes to a developing nation. Additionally, it is expected that such countries will be an inevitable democratization with transparent and equal partnerships with advanced systems in developed countries.
Economic Relationships, Global Trade, Partnerships, Rogue Countries, USA, Sudan

66. Implications of Economic Interactions Between Northern and Southern Tribes of Sudan
Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics, Vol. 3, No. 46, March 17, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
Abstract
The present paper discusses issues of the tribal interactions living on the borders between North and South Sudan. Foresights are looked for, especially after secession. There are multiple ethnic relations and mutual resources collectively utilized. Different tribes live on those resources, in specifics those who depend on a livelihood of herding cattle, camels, sheep and goats. The conceptions of no-borders, free water resources and open range were entrenched for hundreds of years. The sudden realization of necessities of new borders generates revulsion, sense of deprivation and end of traditional life practice. Additionally, development issues are weak with lack of infrastructure, investments and governmental services of health, education and the existence of central authorities. The conclusions focus on the necessity of infusing funds, services and directed development programs. Moreover, new agreements are required to avoid transforming those societies into outlaw structures of smuggling arms, nurturing rebel groups or generating other secessions per se.
Microeconomics, Sudan, Secession, Border Tribes, Economic Interactions, Development

67. Economic Perspective of Indigenous Knowledge Systems, Technology Transfer and Rural Water Use in Darfur
Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics Journal, Vol. 3, No. 42, March 11, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
Abstract
There are growing increases in Darfur population's water demand in recent years due to rapid demographic expansions that led to increased consumption per capita associated with improved standards of living and water-related commodity production, agriculture and service industries. In addition to this, the problem of water stress which is attributable to increased per capita demand over fixed levels of supply and its concomitant land desiccation resulting from activities such as deforestation and overgrazing. Water scarcity continues in arid and semi-arid areas due to precursory climatic conditions of aridity and droughts. Together these have led to acute water scarcity and consequently, a shortfall in the amount of water available for human use. The current paper discusses issues of economic and sustainable utilization in Kutum area, Northern Darfur region using field data and economic model.
Water Use, Arid Regions, Sustainability, Economic Perspective, Darfur, Sudan

68. Human Capital and the Economic Role of Women in Darfur-Sudan
SSRN Working Paper Series
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
Abstract
The present paper analyzes issues of human capital development in Sudan. Investments are essentially for the national welfare. The impacts are more pronounced in the rural and marginalized regions. Conflicts are feasible in societies with less expenditure on education and henceforth less developed human capital densities. The phenomenon is amplified in African countries. Thus, education economics are fundamental to insight new parameters and investments should be diverted from defense and security issues to education. Accumulated education levels shows to help in the absorption of technology transference. Sudan has severe and grave symptoms with secession of its Southern part and the eminence of others to go similar steps. The main factors lie in grievances of underdevelopment, less services and education negligence with high rates of basic illiteracy parameters. Empirical analysis shows that as entrenched problem in rural and marginal regions. The paper focus on trouble ridden Darfur region and study the relationships between education and labor and job opportunities. It is concluded that women in Darfur constitute a majority portion of labor in the region. Partly, that is due to the depletion of man constituent and recruitment in rebel groups. That is in addition to the ethnic and tribal habits. Investment in education programs helps to improve their abilities and productivity. That is especially with the increasing demand for the labor-force and endogenous products. There are possibilities to improve their returns by increasing productivity.
Human Capital, Women Economic Role, Participation, Darfur

69. The Impacts of Water Pollution on Economic Development in Sudan
SSRN Working Paper Series
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
Abstract
Water pollution is a chronic crisis in Sudan that is rarely researched. However, it is combined with scarcity, disputes and uncertainty. In the current paper we introduce its concepts with emphasis on the growing problems of pollution combined with scarcity. A Case study of the growing problem of pollution is introduced and analyzed using economic parameters.
Sudan, Pollution, Economic Development

70. The Impacts of Imbalanced Development on Migration: Case Study of Khartoum State, Sudan
Urban Economics and Regional Studies Journal, Vol. 4, No. 86, May 26, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
Abstract
Migration is one of the infamous phenomenon that represent grieve problem in modern world. Our present analysis is based on the conception that external migration represents an intricate crisis for developed countries flooded by illegal immigrants. It is correlated with the socioeconomic internal crisis evolving in developing countries. The case study here is on the impacts of imbalanced development on Sudan's economy and the resultant internal migration towards the urban areas specially Khartoum generated a crisis situation. The capital city of Sudan is not prepared for the floods of internally displaced, economic refugees' invasion. The proper estimation for the annual demographic increase is about 10%. The city contains more than 20% of the country's population who have little chance for job opportunities, housing, medical care or education. The paper concludes that country's resources should be devoted for rural and regional development. Otherwise, social diseases may explode with little that can be done to mend.
Imbalanced Development, Civil Conflicts, Migration, Internal Displacement, Urban Crisis, Social Diseases

71. Empirical Applications for Survey Data on HIV/AIDS Epidemic in Khartoum State
Health Economics Journal, Vol. 3, No. 57, May 11, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
Abstract
The study focuses on the HIV/AIDS in Khartoum state during the period (2003-2007). The main objectives are to study the situation of HIV/AIDS in Khartoum state through a sample of 1439 of volunteers for the three selected blood testing and counseling centers in Khartoum, Omdurman, and Khartoum North teaching hospitals. The data of the study were collected from secondary source namely the registered information about volunteers after testing blood for HIV. The data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics, chi-square test for dependency between demographic variables and HIV/AIDS incidence, and logistic regression model to discover the effect of predictors variables on the dependent HIV/AIDS incidence. The infected percent is found to be very high in Khartoum center (36.0), 33.5 for Omdurman center, and The incidence rate of HIV/AIDS is found to 14.3 for Khartoum North center. The logistic regression model results have concluded social status, Occupation, and education level affect the HIV/AIDS incidence Khartoum state. The trends of the disease during 2007 have indicated that, the pandemic is at increasing rate for both sexes males and females positive although the positive cases for males were greater than females positive cases, except in one or two months. It is recommended that there must be assessment for the current situation of the HIV/AIDS so as to construct strategic plan to stop or eradicate the spread among the people mainly adults. The study has focused on the HIV/AIDS in Khartoum state during the period (2003-2007). Its main objective was to study the situation of HIV/AIDS in Khartoum state through a sample of 1439 of volunteers for the three selected blood testing and counseling centers in Khartoum, Omdurman, and Khartoum North teaching hospitals. The data of the study were collected from secondary source namely the registered information about volunteers after testing blood for HIV checking. The data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics, chi-square test for dependency between demographic variables and HIV/AIDS incidence, and logistic regression model to discover the effect of predictors variables on the dependent HIV/AIDS incidence.The infected percent is found to be very high in Khartoum center (36.0), 33.5 for Omdurman center, and The incidence rate of HIV/AIDS is found to 14.3 for Khartoum North center. The logistic regression model results have concluded social status, occupation, and education level affect the HIV/AIDS incidence Khartoum state. The trends of the disease during 2007 have indicated that, the pandemic is at increasing rate for both sexes males and females positive although the positive cases for males were greater than females positive cases, except in one or two months. The study recommended that, there must be assessment for the current situation of the HIV/AIDS so as to construct strategic plan to stop or eradicate the spread among the people mainly adults.
HIV/AIDS, Statistical Models, Khartoum State, Prevalence

72. Evaluation of Sustainability from Socioeconomic and Political Approach in the Rosieres Project Study Area of the Blue Nile States
Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics Journal, Vol. 3, No. 86, May 17, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
Abstract
Sustainable agriculture is a way of practicing agriculture to optimize skills and technology to achieve long-term stability in agricultural farming system and utilization of resource. Farming system is a set of interrelated elements confining natural resources with the socio-economic and cultural of the societies. The technology factor plays an important role in assessing the degree of development and constraints facing the farming system. The package of technology implemented in the project, and changes took place as result will be discussed from the beneficiaries' opinions of area cultivated and yields and rates of agricultural inputs and impacts on sustainability. It is assumed that the project has built its strategy to improve and develop the traditional rain fed farming in one of the following ways either by increasing the area cultivated or by increasing the productivity or both. In this context, it is intended to analyze and discuss the agronomical and agricultural practices and farming systems in it’s all forms.
Sustainability, Agricultural Development, Sudan, Blue Nile Province, Household, Participation, Socioeconomics

73. Changing Coins: Economic Conditions, Terrorism, Political Regime and the Utility of Emergency Status in Stabilizing Staggering Systems
Journal of Development Economics, Vol. 3, No. 78, April 20, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
Abstract
The declaration of war on terrorism was an effective tool for the United States of America in its war against extremist movements in the global sense. However, it was also an effective tool for some totalitarian regimes around the world to prolong their existence through causality repression processes. In the case of Sudan, the invisible conflict between its regime and the United States policies general outlines the September 11th, 2001 consequent repercussions was manna. It was used to fortify the weakened regimes situation and push for the Comprehensive Peace Agreement with the Southern Sudan. However, the inception of civil conflict in Darfur gradually worsened the situation once again. Economic difficulties increased and collapse of the real economic sector in the country did not improve even though with oil production and revenues in the following years. The expansions in Darfur conflict degraded the country of direly needed economic resources. Social cohesion started to disintegrate with calls of disparities within the ruling elite. The general situation illustrates institutional and social interregnum that reflects acute national crisis.
Civil Conflict, September 11, Totalitarianism, Emergency Laws, Persistence

74. Effects of the Economic and Environmental Factors on the Rural Water Use in Darfur Region, Sudan
Environmental Economics Journal, Vol. 3, No. 42, March 10, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to investigate the nature of water use a drought-inflicted region of Darfur. Economic development in this area is constrained due to the occurrence of intermittent droughts, desertification and water scarcity. Therefore, we attempted to develop an analytical framework for assessing alternative economic development scenarios in the village and to advance policy measures for a sustainable economy without endangering the environment. The paper introduced the problem of study, outlined the aims and objectives, and discussed the conceptual framework. The problem was analyzed in context of sustainable agriculture and economic development, identified broad strategies toward solving it, and indicated the need for an analytical approach. The case study was the village of Kutum. Basic data on water use and commodity production were generated. An analytical model, a product-by-industry economic-ecological model was developed. It is an environmental extension of the input-output model and useful for determining direct and total direct and indirect input requirements. Because it does not include human responses, an indigenous knowledge systems and technology local initiatives is preferred. The established scenarios were simulated using the model to determine the impacts associated with each development approach. The findings are expected to be applicable not only to the village but to the rest of the region.
Darfur, Economic Development, Water Use, Drought, Agricultural Production

75. Economic and Environmental Effects and Rural Water Use in Darfur Region, Sudan
SSRN Working Paper Series Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
Abstract
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the nature of water use a drought-inflicted region of Darfur. Economic development in Darfur is constrained due to the occurrence of intermittent droughts, desertification and water scarcity. The aim of this research therefore, was to develop an analytical framework for assessing alternative economic development scenarios in the village and to advance policy measures for a sustainable economy without endangering the environment. The paper introduced the problem of paper, outlined the aims and objectives, and discussed the conceptual framework. The problem was analyzed in context of sustainable agriculture and economic development, identified broad strategies toward solving it, and indicated the need for an analytical approach. The case paper was the village of Kutum. Base data on water use and commodity production were generated. An analytical model, a product-by-industry economic-ecological model was developed. It is an environmental extension of the input-output model and useful for determining direct and total direct and indirect input requirements. Because it does not include human responses, an indigenous knowledge systems and technology local initiatives is preferred. The established scenarios were simulated using the model to determine the impacts associated with each development approach. The findings are expected to be applicable not only to the village but to the rest of the region.
Sudan, Darfur, Water Scarcity, Utility, Economic Activities, Analysis

76. Review of Somalia, Greed, Colonization and Socioeconomic Impacts
Emerging Markets Economics, Environmental and Social Aspects Journal, Vol. 2, No. 55, June 30, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
Abstract
In a country that lost all feasible authorities for over twenty years, economic future seems gloomy. No feasible economic solutions are seen. The paper review auspices of the Somalian tragedy and retort history of its last dictatorship, Siad Barri, the following civil conflict and the process of the present total war, everyone against everyone. Socioeconomic impacts are discussed along with the education situation and state human capital there.
Somalia, Colonization, Dictatorship, Civil Conflict and War, Socioeconomic Impacts, Education, Human Capital

77. Defining Aspects and Theories of Food Security in Sudan
Development Economics Journal, Vol. 3, No. 113, June 8, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
Abstract
Food security is a chronic and intrinsic problem in Sub Saharan Africa. The present paper introduces some aspects of it with great considerations to the rich theoretical background presented by some scientists. The problem of food insecurity in Sudan is discussed with review on the recurrent famine incidents and aspects of food aid delivered by the international society.
Food Production, Insecurity, Famine, Foreign Aid

78. Policies Determining Food and Nutrition Information Environment in Sudan
Health Economics Journal, Vol. 3, No. 66, June 6, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
Abstract
Government policy logically should shape the information environment in which consumers make food choices. Government’s most important information role may be in supporting the production of basic scientific knowledge about the relationships between diet and health. It also plays a role in education and in shaping the types of information available to consumers. Among the issues highlighted here are the importance of incentives in determining the types of products offered for sale, the key role of scientific uncertainty and the dynamic nature of the diet-health knowledge in shaping regulatory choices, and finally, the importance of recognizing consumer heterogeneity in assessing the success of regulatory rules and other government initiatives. The importance of these propositions emerge with the recent arguments on quality control and the diffusion of market-tents that gives more implications for chaotic food markets situations in the municipals.
Food Security, Distribution, Market Incentives
79. Ninety Nine Mountains, Self Determination and the Secession Off Sudan
Political Economy, National, State and Local Government; Intergovernmental Relations Journal,. Vol. 4, No. 69, May 24, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
Abstract
The present paper briefly introduces the dilemma of the Nuba nation. They were a median state between the Southern and Northern Sudan. The current situation of Southern secession made them a border state rife with racial, tribal and political conflicts. Secession of Southern Sudan is a de facto situation which has to be dealt with wisdom to avoid future clashed that may escalate. Additionally, the mutual use of resources is inevitable for both sides. The tribal structure in both South and North necessitate establishing new code of dealing with the new situation. The Tribal Civil Administration (TCA) has better communication and accessibility with the people of both sides. The new secession should not bar people from both sides to live, work or rear their livestock in traditional old ways. Thus, it is necessary to strengthen the TCA role in the public relations and diplomacy. Building up and completing previously started governmental infrastructure, e.g., roads, schools, clinics should re-commence. Such measures can strengthen relationships and minimize probabilities of conflicts and future civil war. The available options for the Nuba mountains region as introduced by Southern secession's Juba and Northern Khartoum governments were that the Nuba state joins either one of them. However, the long political, racial and resources aggravations triggered a third choice of separation from both countries and the formation of their own state. That can be a selective choice that may agree with the racial different formations of Arabs, Nuba and Fulani tribes that have their own conflicting loyalties and fears of both the Northern and Southern sides. The paper presents a background to the Nuba tribes' demographic characteristics and then suggests a framework for future analytic work.
Nuba Mountains, Tribal Structure, Self-Determination, Secession

80. Reviewing Theories of Labor Economics and Applications in Developing Countries with Special Reference to Sudan
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
Abstract
Labor wages, employment rates, strategies and policies are completely ignored if not totally missing in Sub Saharan Africa. That represents a potential reason for poverty and popular discontent and expressed by rebellions, revolts and civil uprisings in many countries as we have seen in the past years. Lack of potential policies and correct management measures are related to ignorance, good-governance or corruption in those regimes. However, it is important to review theories. The present paper reviews theories of labor, employment and wages of classic and new class schools. Previous studies conducted in Sudan, though scarce, are also reviewed to shed some light on the problems as it represents one of the biggest challenges for policy and decision-makers in the country.
Sub Saharan Africa, Sudan, Employment, Poverty

81. The Impacts of Foreign Currency Exchange Rates on Savings in Sudan
SSRN Working Paper Series
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
Abstract
The impacts of fluctuations of exchange rates of foreign hard currencies are well documented in economics literature. There are measures taken over by countries to absorb their impacts on income, employment and national economies ability to function and produce. However, distortions are observed in underdeveloped and developing countries. Sudan is among those where impacts of fluctuations in exchange rates versus national currencies are strongly observed and felt on its economy. In the past three decades they represented the highest effects on real money's value, had macroeconomic impacts, affect the prices of productive inputs, produced commodities and the economy's performance. The examination we follow in this paper reveals that they were zero-policies for stabilization. The bank case study for examining encouragements, promoting saving policies to support the national economy suggests they were equal to zero-policies. It is suggested here that macroeconomic restructuring is inevitable to normalize the economic performance. Otherwise, more crisis face the country, one of them is cardinal and eminent economic collapse.
Sudan, Foreign Currency Exchange rates, Macroeconomic Policy, Savings, Inflation, Poverty

82. The Sad Triology: The Crisis of a Nation
SSRN Working Paper Series
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
Abstract
This is part of the first part of a book I started writing in the year 2008 under the title of Sad Trilogy: The Crisis of a Nation. In this part it is narrating the Sudan under the Inqaz regime, specially before and after the Darfur region crisis and civil wars, the rage of the international society and responses, the impacts of the International Institutions including the ICC and the hunt for justice. All those qualitative variables had responses inside the country. Political chaos ensued because of the generated cries for human rights violations, invisible and visible embargo, growing pressures and internal public uncertainty. However, the responses of Inqaz regime were not resilient or compromising, there were violent reactions and denials. The logic behind should be referred to being cornered and threatened by the indictments of the ICC. Defiant responses and recalls were vouched and political entrenchment was initiated. Meanwhile, the social nation's stability was shaken even more with the calls of the international society and feeling of being cornered and collectively indicted. Economic conditions gradually worsened under inflation and unemployment with escalated costs and requirements for defense.
Sudan, Crisis, Civil War

83. Empirical Data Analysis of HIV/AIDS in Sudan with Reference to Khartoum State Econometrics, Data Collection and Data Estimation Methodology Journal, Vol. 4, Issue 45, June 27, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
Abstract
The present paper introduces results of an analysis conducted on data collected from Khartoum state for the year 2009. It aims to apply statistical models for the HIV/AIDS data in Khartoum state centers of testing blood and counseling. AIDS is recognized as an emerging disease only in the early 1980s, AIDS has rapidly established itself throughout the world, and is likely to endure and persist well into the 21s century. AIDS has evolved from a mysterious illness to a global pandemic which has infected tens of millions less than 20 years. The importance of the study is to emphasize that the disease exists even under the special conditions of the country and its status. The study constructs three main hypotheses that non-linear models fit the HIV/AIDS data well especially binary logistic regression. Moreover, it is assumed that demographic variables affect the HIV/AIDS incidence in Khartoum state. It is also assumed that incidences of HIV/AIDS are increasing as manifested among volunteers in the three centers Khartoum, Khartoum North, and Omdurman. The main objective of the paper was to apply statistical models for HIV/AIDS in Khartoum state so as to obtain a good analysis, beside other sub objectives. Data were from secondary sources and volunteers centers for blood testing and counseling inside Omdurman, Khartoum, and Khartoum North teaching hospitals. Also, data were collected through questionnaires designed to get all the information registered inside the three centers. The main idea of analysis was to apply and identify statistical model that related to AIDS by using statistical packages to construct the models depends on the collected data about HIV/AIDS of Khartoum state. The focus was on binary logistic regression, because it’s suitable to the data collected from the three centers inside the three hospitals in Khartoum. Estimated coefficients and statistical tests were conducted to distinguish between the variables that related to HIV/AIDS incidence and spread through people in the three cities Khartoum, Khartoum North, and Omdurman. It is concluded that there is no effect of education level on n HIV/AIDS infection for the data collected from Omdurman. However, there is dependency between HIV/AIDS incidence and occupation of volunteers. So the job of individuals affects the HIV/AIDS incidence inside Omdurman area. Also there is an association between HIV/AIDS incidence and social status of individuals. High numbers of positive HIV/AIDS in Omdurman center are among married people.
Khartoum State, Omdurman, Khartoum North, Khartoum, HIV/AIDS, Incidence, Prevalence, Socioeconomic Conditions
84. Brief Introduction of Macroeconomic Structure of Yemen (1990-2005)
Macroeconomics, Monetary and Fiscal Policies Journal, Vol. 4, No. 72, May 13, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
Abstract
In countries where tools of economic control are immature and disabled due to totalitarian systems, macroeconomic analyses for aggregate quantities and relationships, such as total consumption, investment, and government expenditures represents a difficult task. The practice of aggregation distinguishes this field of microeconomics and has advantages but also creates problems, a brief survey of these problems is required now, although a deeper appreciation of these must await the critical attitudes that can only develop with more exposure to entire subject. One difficulty is the complex area known as the aggregation problem, the classifying of widely varying goods or activities into one general category, which is treated as a homogeneous variable. The political, social and military fate of nations depends greatly upon economic success, and no area of economics is today more vital to nation’s success than its macroeconomic performance. Countries like Japan which has grown rapidly by wining export markets for its products, enjoy enhanced political power and higher living standards. A country’s living standards depend crucially upon its macroeconomic policies.
Macroeconomic Analysis, Yemen, Aggregate Demand, Money Supply

85. Review of Regional Development and Crisis in Greater Darfur State
Political Economy, Government Expenditures and Related Policies Journal, Vol. 4, No. 62, April 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
Abstract
The crisis of Greater Darfur Region of Sudan was amplified by global news media all over the world. Civil conflict erupted, developed into armed rebellion and open uncontrolled civil war that enveloped the whole region. Many sources estimated the resultant lost lives at over 300,000 individual while the Sudanese government sources estimated them at 10,000. Displaced at refugees numbered over 3 millions and there were massive destruction of the scanty infrastructure in the region. Many reasons for the conflicts were given, however, most agree on that underdevelopment, lack of governmental plans to improve life, health, education and human capital were the true reasons. In the current paper we present some information on the whole country per se and then discuss some reasons and logics of previous development structure, deficiencies and mismanagement or ill-conceptions.
Sudan, Greater Darfur Region, Underdevelopment, Conflict, Human Capital

86. Assessment of Macroeconomic Variables Performance of the Sudanese Economy (1970-2008)
Journal of Development Economics, Vol. 3, No. 75, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
Abstract
The performance of the Sudanese economy is an enigma of failures even with all the potentials of country's resources. The failure started since the year 1970 and continued the descent even with massive economic support during the following decades. Excluding the political instability and the epidemic of corruption that continued to engulf the economy, there are reasons that mismanagement affected the economic performance. The entry of oil production into the Sudanese economy did not improve the macroeconomic situation, services or income per capita, but resulted in escalating the urge of the authorities to control money supply. There were signs that ill-policies strangulated the economy. Moreover, there are strong signs that the real economic production sectors deteriorated in its outputs and income sharing.
Macroeconomic Variables, Money Supply, Income Per capita, Sudan

87. Global Financial Crisis and Effects on the Agricultural Sector of Sudan
SSRN Working Paper Series
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
Abstract
The severe impacts of the global financial crisis had effects on all world. However, in Sudan scientists and researchers were greatly shocked because of the governmental camouflaging on their real effects on the economy. Minister of National Economy and Finance denied the effects on the Sudanese economy. The governor of the Sudan Central bank did the same with emphasis from both that everything are quite and normal and that Sudan can absorb all shocks on its economic performance. Truly, they ave eaten their words in the following months and confessed the partial effects on the Sudanese economy. Moreover, after they were expelled from their jobs they were quoted in newspapers to say that the impacts of the global financial crisis have severely the Sudanese economy and that it was not different from other countries. We introduce in this paper a survey for the impacts that occurred to the Sudanese agricultural sector. The damaged that befell it is extended because the governmental policies were not encouraged to do so. Moreover, what decision-makers declared impacted any possible processes of rectifications and when they confessed the impacts the damages were already en-rooted. It is foreseen here that a complete and full restructuring is direly need to the macroeconomic and decision-making in the regime's system. Without it, food shortages and total food insecurity is seen coming.
Sudan, global Financial Crisis, Agricultural Sector, Macroeconomic Policies, Production, Food Insecurity

88. Impacts of Sudan Macroeconomic Policy on Agriculture
SSRN Working Paper Series
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
Abstract:
The crisis of Southern Sudan and eminent secession in 9 July 2011 is a nightmare to the Sudanese national economy. The dependence on oil revenue that controlled the country for the past 11 years and negligence of the other real economy's economic sectors, agriculture and industry severely threatens the country. That is not only with diminished returns but with also with economic nightmarish economic catastrophe, famine and internal implosion. Short-sightedness on utilizing the oil money that bubbled the economy atrophied the real economic sectors and disabled it from responding to secession consequences of parting with 75% of revenues from oil that going with the south. The industrial sector died with over-taxation and the agricultural sector emaciated with the privatization, lack of funds to be re-innovated, maintained or be supplied with normalized prices of inputs (Issam AW Mohamed 2011). Moreover, crisis in Darfur and recently in Southern Kordofan regions marginalized their abilities to share in agricultural production. The current paper discusses changes that occurred in the agricultural sector of Sudan and how it tuned into predated prey to taxation and levies Issam AW Mohamed 1991). The regression of the economic sectors does not support assumptions that there can be recovery in the sort or the medium terms. Moreover, the declared responses of macroeconomic policies seem vague on how to ameliorate the current and future situation. More likely, it seems like dream-walking that enhances beliefs that it is not realistic. In our conclusions, unless there are quick responses from the international society it is more likely that there shall be total and irreversible collapse of the whole Sudanese economy.

89. Assessment and Economics of Water Resources in South Darfur State
SSRN Working Paper Series
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
Abstract
The crisis of Greater Darfur region continued for the past eight years with so many postulations of the reasons behind the rebellions and uprisings there. Many voiced their concerns about human sufferings, but all agreed on that reasons focus on less or non-existent development. United Nations' Secretary General Ban declared that water scarcity is one of the major reasons for the conflict and anger. In the present paper we have different theory that water resources in Dafur are abundant, only awaiting tapping and present a description of South Darfur region. It is possible with the proper financing and honest efforts to deliver enough untapped water resources that suffice for all economic activities.
Sudan, Southern Darfur, Water Scarcity, Availability, Resources
90. Bringing Down the Temple on Everyone's Head: Suicide by Economic Demise
Working Paper Series
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
Abstract
The Sudanese political crisis is delivered worldwide in all media. Current issues are focused on the Southern Secession and birth of the South Sudan Nation, the recent rebellion in Southern Kordofan, the Darfur stalemate. Additional crisis are brewing in Sudan's Eastern Region of the Red Sea, the Lands of the legendary Fuzzy Wuzzy and another in the Northern land of ancient civilization, Nubatia. That seems like simulated infectious epidemic predictive call for democracy and liberty from totalitarian regime. However, in our current paper we introduce another theory that such conceals uprisings are simulated by economic management of the country, rife corruption, escalated poverty and destitution of the nation and unprecedented economic hoardings that left the masses with diminishing resources for bare subsistence and survival. Impacts of the Global Financial Crisis were heavy on a country that neglected its potential agricultural resources and mainly depended on scanty oil resources. Secession of the Southern Sudan will deprive it from 75% of those resources which leaves the country in a bleak situation. Additionally, its financial and banking institutions suffered massive losses that left it crippled and unable to finance the other real economic sectors, e.g., agriculture and industry. Moreover, shadow and fraud financial institutions called the Pipes deprived the people of their savings in many regions. Authorities stood unwilling and unable to carry out rectifications and restructurings of the economy with diminishing ability to borrow from the International Society that unwilling to extend hand for help.
Sudan, Darfur, South Kordofan, Darfur, Political Stalemate, Economic Crisis, Global Financial Crisis

91. Crisis of a Nation: The Delirium
SSRN Working Paper Series
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
Abstract:
This is the first part of a book I started writing in the year 2008 under the title of Sad Triology: The Crisis of a Nation. I name this chapter the Delirium as it represents the political response to what happens in the country due to the international outrage and pressures to Darfur Crisis. This part is narrating pressures on Sudan's Inqaz regime, specially after the Darfur region crisis and civil wars, the rage of the international society and responses, the impacts of the International Instututions including the ICC and the hunt for justice. All those qualitative variables had responses inside the country. Political chaos ensued because of the generated cries for human rights violations, invisible and visible embargo, growing pressures and internal public uncertainty. However, the responses of Inqaz regime were not resilient or compromising, there were violent reactions and denials. The logics behind should be referred to being cornered and threatened by the indictments of the ICC. Defiant responses and recalls were vouched and political entrenchment was initiated. Meanwhile, the social nation's stability was shaken even more with the calls of the international society and feeling of being cornered and collectively indicted. Economic conditions gradually worsened under inflation and unemployment with escalated costs and requirements for defense. We recognize the major players in this tragedy as the Western countries, specifically the United States of America, England and France who probably ensued a strategy of exhaustion to the Sudanese regime. However, we cannot recognize if the final endeavors were to execute a disintegration of Sudan or only to topple the regime. The tragedy continues not only with the Secession of Southern Sudan but also with the civil war in Kordofan and Darfur and eminent secession of the Great Blue Nile region.
Sudan, Secession, ICC, Civil Conflict, Disintegration

92. Sustainability and Economic Development in Southern Rossereis Agricultural Project in the Blue Nile State-Sudan
Environmental Economics Journal, Vol. 3, No. 79, May 12, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
Abstract
This study aims to explore a suitable approach to a sustainable development of agricultural resources on the ground that development is a milestone for rebuilding our country. Among the various dimension of development we give priority to development of agricultural resources referring to the fact that the Sudan is rich in it’s agricultural resources which make the agricultural sector as the leading sector in Sudan economy. Empirical practice is necessary to verify our hypotheses, we choose Southern Rossaires project in Blue Nile region to carry out our field study, as the project is considered as one of projects that aim to reach a sustainable development. The paper proceeds by reviewing theoretical thoughts over development and the history of development in Sudanese agricultural sector. That is carried out with special focus in the main aspects of each periods of this history. A part of this paper concentrates on the project region exploring it’s climatic, environmental, social and economic aspects, as well as previous development terials experienced in the region, such as Blue Nile integrated development project. Furthermore, the study has paid attention to explore various activities in the country for social, economic, environmental and agricultural levels.
Agricultural Development, Sustainability, Blue Nile, Sudan

93. WTO-Doha Multilateral Trade Negotiations and Agriculture
SSRN Working Paper Series
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
Abstract
The Doha Development Round or Doha Development Agenda (DDA) is the current trade-negotiation round of the World Trade Organization (WTO), which launched in November 2001. With the start of this round, non-trade concerns (NTCs) were explicitly renowned and integrated into the negotiation process. Generally, multi-functionality proponents attempt to resist agricultural trade liberalization by giving high support to protect their domestic producers. These are net food importing countries, some small countries with highly protected agricultural sector and large trade deficits in some main outputs and unfavourable agro-climatic conditions. The opponents of the multi-functionality argument all claim to recognize the legitimacy of other countries' non-trade concerns. However, they insist that NTCs should be safeguarded by measures that are not trade distorting. Thus, they challenge countries with significant NTCs to devise green box measures for protecting them. This paper analyses the debate surrounding multi-functionality in the context of the WTO Millennium Round negotiations on agricultural trade liberalization. Six points of contention are discussed in detail. The paper also considers whether the concept of multi-functionality contributes to the framework for the negotiations. Also, the paper sheds light on the case of Sudan in regard with multi-functionality of agriculture and the case of Sudan.
Trade Liberalization, Agriculture, WTO, Doha, Environmental Factors, Externalities

94. Secession and Voluntary Return in the Comprehensive Peace Agreement between Northern and Southern Sudan
SSRN Working Paper Series
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
Abstract:
The date of South secession is coming soon at the 9th July 2011. However, there is the problem of people from the south who live in the north. Some of them where behaving as natural citizens and had jobs or education or even lived for decades and centuries in the north. Others were internally displaced people, but both are compelled to return to their homes in the south as the Comprehensive Peace Agreement signed by the twp parties, North and South have stressed on. That created inevitable another displacement or uprooting for them and definitely another human tragedy. This paper is part of a field survey conducted on the displaced people from Southern Sudan who were encouraged to return to the south before and after the referendum for secession of unity in one nation. The motive behind that survey was to study a phenomenon that emerged for those displaced due to security and economic reasons. The phenomenon was that many of then returned to the north after financial support given for them for voluntary return to the south. The efforts to study reasons behind that were individual efforts and finance as an academic assessment of why people of some region refuse to return. An analysis for the Comprehensive Peace Agreement signed by parties the Government of Sudan and Sudan Popular Liberation Movement was first carried out as a background for the study. Dinka Ngok, the selected tribal group who lives in Abeyi district were surveyed to investigate why they selected to go north and why they did not settle when they were helped for a voluntary return. The results show that the Abeyi district still lacks basic services and living conditions are very difficult. Besides, they did not believe that security conditions are suitable for living there with the continuous conflict and hidden anger. The study also confirm the indispensable and vital role of the NGO's in helping and supporting the internally displaced people in Sudan with specific mention of the people from the south.
Keywords: Sudan, Southern Secession, Displaced People, Abyei, NGO's, CPA

95. The Impacts of Southern Sudan Post-Secession on the White Nile Province Tribalism and Civil Administration
Conflict Studies Journal, Vol. 5, No. 20, February 24, 2011
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
Abstract
The Southern Sudan secession is a de facto situation that both the Northern government and the public have to deal with on realistic grounds. There are economic, social and political ties which have to be assessed under the new facts for both people in the north and south to prevent future disputes. The fact that many Northern monadic tribes lead their livestock to Southern regions represents nucleus disputes reasons. There are social and demographic interrelationships that cannot simply be ignored for their economic, social and demographic blends. The current paper suggests that the involvement of the tradition tribal administration can be an extremely beneficial tool. That is with special consideration for the interactive geographic and demographic variables that control life and future peace or disputes. The paper recommends the integration of the civil administration within the official governmental administrative body. That is to create effective tool for a peaceful secession and mutual cooperation.
Keywords: Secession, Tribalism, Civil Administration

96. The Impacts of Public Expenditure on GDP in UAE (1990-2009)
Macroeconomics, Monetary and Fiscal Policies Journal, Vol. 4, No. 20, February 4, 2011
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
Abstract
GDP represents one of the main sources of national income to the United Arab Emirates, where this contributes with not less than (90%) in gross national income of the state. Emirate of Abu Dhabi contributed between (53%-62%) in GDP during the period (1990-2009), while contributed to the Emirate of Dubai is between (24%-35%) in the GDP of the UAE during the same period, illustrated by the percentage contribution of the five other emirates combined (Sharjah, Ajman, Ras Al Khaimah, Fujairah, Umm Al Quwain) during the study period ranged between (3%-23%). The UAE's economy developed remarkably during the period (1990-2009) supported by the growing oil revenues, the main result of the escalation of prices in the international market and access to record levels, especially in the last years of the period in question, as well as the growth of the quantities of oil from 1990 to 2009 it which was reflected in the high pace of economic activity due to the implementation of large-scale projects public and private, where GDP rose at current prices of (125.266) billion AED in 1980 (914.300) billion AED in 2009, it all led to exceed the growth rate (630% ), in other words, the GDP of the UAE has doubled more than six times during the period (1990-2009). As a result of the analysis of econometric models, it was shown that there is a strong impact by the public expenditure on GDP as an increase in public expenditure in the UAE million dirhams lead to an increase in gross domestic product (4.159) million dirhams, and that public spending contributes to a (90%) to explain and interpret the changes that will occur in the gross domestic product. Also showed the results of econometric models estimate that there is a significant effect by the public expenditure on all sources of GDP.
Keywords: UAE, Public Expenditure, GDP

97. Power Game, Stockholm Pathogen, Tyranny and the Disintegration of the Sudanese Nation Institutions and Transition Economics, Political Economy Journal, Vol. 3, No. 9, January 17, 2011
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
Abstract
The current paper suggests that the national salvation coup de etat power-overtaking and the creation of the NCP (National Congress Party) dominated Sudan only a process similar to Pathogenic Stockholm Syndrome. That conforms with what Gramsci suggests as an inevitable methodology to have sustainable hegemony over a whole nation for a prolonged time. Religious dogma was a permeation throughout society of an entire system of values, attitudes, beliefs and morality that has the effect of supporting the status quo in power relations. The succeeding extraction of the nation's economic surplus was only a result of absolute power utility. The paper concludes that was a process for the confiscation of the people's ability to reason. The result is a de facto disintegration of the social fabric and cohesion of the nation. A vacuum of institutional interregnum was generated because of the failed state.
Keywords: Power, Stockholm Syndrome, Institutional Interregnum

98. On Tyranny and Economic Greed: The NCP and the Disintegration of the Sudanese Nation
Human Rights and the Global Economy Journal, Vol. 5, No. 2, January 11, 2011
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
Abstract
The present paper is part of an unpublished book divided into three interrelated manuscripts that analyze the collapse of the Sudan. The current paper concludes that the decision of the International Criminal Court to arrest President Bashir triggered a process for the disintegration of an unprecedented tyrannical regime that embezzled the Sudanese nation under the pretext of imposing Islamic Sharia Laws. However, there is a pronounced prominent conflict manifested here which is the question whether it was a real Islamic law, or was it only a powerful tool to control the country. The dogma imposed a hegemonic regime that extracted all economic surplus, sequestered civil rights and committed genocide in all the country's regions. The result is that the country has undergone a de facto division and disintegration process. Moreover, a vacuum of institutional interregnum was generated because of the failed state.
Keywords: Tyranny, Genocide and Economic Greed, Sudan, institutional interregnum, Failed State
Other Published Papers
أهم الأوراق المنشورة
Issam A.W. Mohamed and Mohamed Eljack Ahmed (2010) Challenges of Social Security in Sudan. Paper Presented for the Fredrich Eibrich Foundation Conference in the Middle East. Socioeconomic Forum on Labor Market and Social Policies.
Mohamed Eljack Ahmed and Issam A.W. Mohamed (2010) Labor Market in Sudan. Paper Presented for the Fredrich Eibrich Foundation Conference in the Middle East. Socioeconomic Forum on Labor Market and Social Policies.
Issam A.W. Mohamed (2006) The Viability of Economic Utilization of Wadis in the Sudan: Case Study of Wadi Almugadam. The Southern Pacific Journal of Economics. 132: 1.
الاستغلال الاقتصادي للأودية في السودان : دراسة حالة وادي المقدم شمال كردفان . مجلة جنوب المحيط الهادئ . 13 : 1 .
Issam A.W. Mohamed (2006). An Analysis of Job Satisfaction in Sudanese Universities. A Case Study of Alneelain University. The Nile Basin Research Journal. Vol. 4 (1): Pp. 18-37.
عصام عبد الوهاب محمد (2006) تحليل لمستويات الرضاء الوظيفي في الجامعات السودانية . مجلة أبحاث حوض النيل . المجلد (4) العدد الأول : 18-37.
Issam A.W. Mohamed (2005). Theoretical Profile and Applications of Social Accounting Systems. Journal of the Faculty of Arts. University of Gar Unis, Faculty of Arts, Bengazi, Libya.
عصام عبد الوهاب محمد (2005) الإطار النظري وتطبيقات نظم المحاسبة الاجتماعية . مجلة كلية الآداب . جامعة جار يونس ، بنغازي – ليبيا .
Issam A.W. Mohamed (2005) The Influence of Father’s Absence on the Arabic Family. Journal of the Faculty of Arts. University of Gar Unis, Faculty of Arts, Bengazi, Libya.
عصام عبد الوهاب محمد (2005) أثر غياب رب الأسرة علي الأسرة العربية . مجلة كلية الآداب . جامعة جار يونس ، بنغازي – ليبيا .
Issam A.W. Mohamed (2005) Economic Theory on the Politics of Soft Budgets' Constraints. Economic & Political Review. (72) 3: 12.
عصام عبد الوهاب محمد (2005) نظرية اقتصادية عن السياسات المحددة للميزانيات المرنة . مجلة السياسة والقانون . (73) العدد الثالث : 12 .
Issam A.W. Mohamed (2005) Impacts of Nonlinear Taxation on Financier's Function. Academy of Entrepreneurship Journal. (9) 3: 6.
أثر الضرائب اللاخطية علي أداء الممول . مجلة أكاديمية الأعمال . (9) 3:6
Issam A.W. Mohamed (2004) Effects of Non-farm Employment on Gender and Poverty. A Comparative Study of Sudan and Uganda. The Nile Basin Research Journal. Vol. 2 (1): Pp. 181-200.
عصام عبد الوهاب محمد (2003) أثر العمالة الغير مزرعية علي النوع والفقر . مجلة أبحاث حوض النيل . المجلد (1) العدد الأول : 181-200.
Issam A.W. Mohamed (2003) The Social Impacts of the Absence of Head of the Family. Journal of Omdurman Islamic University. March, No. 5, P. 123-131.
عصام عبد الوهاب بوب . النتائج المترتبة علي غياب رب الأسرة (2003) مجلة جامعة أم درمان الإسلامية . مارس ، العدد الخامس ص 123-131 .
Issam A.W. Mohamed (2002) The Military Establishment and the Political Structure of the Sudan. Dirasat Ifriqiyya. 27: 57-78.
عصام عبد الوهاب محمد (2002) المؤسسة العسكرية والهيكل السياسي في السودان . دراسات أفريقية . العدد 27 : 57-78.
Issam A.W. Mohamed (2001) Conceptions of Poverty, Employment and Food Security. Arts and Sciences (JAS). Vol. 1 (1): Pp. 29-45.
عصام عبد الوهاب (2001) مفهوم الفقر والعمالة والأمن الغذائي في السودان . مجلة العلوم والآداب . المجلد (2) العدد الأول : 29-45.
Issam A.W. Mohamed and Yoji Takeoka (2001) Analysis of the Institutional Land Rights in the Rainfed Farming of the Sudan. The Nile Basin Research Journal. Vol. 1 (3): Pp. 181-200.
عصام عبد الوهاب محمد ويوجي تاكياوكا (2001) تحليل اقتصادي لأثر الحقوق المؤسسية للأرض في مناطق الزراعة المطرية في السودان . مجلة أبحاث حوض النيل ، المجلد (1) العدد الثالث :171-199.
Issam A.W. Mohamed (2000) Pension Reforms, Efficiency and Equity Trade-off. University of Juba Journal of Arts and Sciences (UJJAS). Vol. 1 (1): Pp. 21-46.
عصام عبد الوهاب محمد (2000) كفاءة التقويم المعاشي في السودان . مجلة جامعة جوبا للعلوم والآداب . المجلد الأول (1) 21-46.
Issam A.W. Mohamed (2000) Economic Adjustment and the Agricultural Sector of the Sudan. The Nile Basin Research Journal. Vol. 1 (1): Pp. 181-200.
عصام عبد الوهاب محمد (2000) أثر التكيف الاقتصادي علي القطاع الزراعي في السودان . مجلة أبحاث حوض النيل ، المجلد (1) العدد الأول: 181-200.
Issam A.W. Mohamed and Yoji Takeoka (1999) Economic Analysis of Salinity Conditions and Improvement Strategies. Nippon Crops Science Society. Vol. 74 (4): Pp. 72-82.
عصام عبد الوهاب محمد ويوجي تاكياوكا (1999) تحليل اقتصادي لأثر ملوحة التربة واستراتيجيات تحسين الأرض . الجمعية العلمية لعلوم المحاصيل اليابانية ، المجلد (74) العدد الرابع :72-82.
Issam A.W. Mohamed (1999) Evolutionary Framework for Agricultural Production and Environmental Resources. The Developing Economies. Vol. 36 (2): Pp. 27-49.
عصام عبد الوهاب محمد (1999) إطار لتقييم الإنتاج الزراعي والموارد البيئية . الاقتصاديات النامية . المجلد (36) العدد الثالث : 27-49.
Issam A.W. Mohamed (1999) Optimal Taxation in a Federal System of Governments. Southern Pacific Economic Journal of Agricultural Development Studies. Vol. 5 (2): Pp. 70-80.
عصام عبد الوهاب محمد (1999) تقدير المستويات الضريبية المثلي تحت نظام سياسي فيدرالي . مجلة جنوب المحيط الهادي لدراسات التنمية الزراعية . المجلد (5) العدد الثاني : 70-80.
Issam A.W. Mohamed and Yoji Takeoka (1996) A Note on the Role of Economics in Valuing Environmental Effects of Development. Development Studies. Vol. 16 (3) Pp. 18-25.
عصام عبد الوهاب محمد ويوجي تاكياوكا (1996) دور العلوم الاقتصادية في تقييم الآثار البيئية للتنمية . مجلة الدراسات التنموية . المجلد (16) العدد الثالث : 18-25 .
Issam A.W. Mohamed, Yoji Takeoka and Hiroyuki Takeya (1995) Environmental Degradation in the Sudan: Economic Assessment (In Japanese). Japan Journal for Crop Science. Vol. 64 (2) Pp. 338-342.
عصام عبد الوهاب محمد ويوجي تاكيأكوكا وهيرويوكي تاكيا (1995) تقييم اقتصادي للتجرد البيئي في السودان . المجلة اليابانية لعلوم المحاصيل. المجلد (64) العدد الثاني : 338-342.
Issam A.W. Mohamed (1995) Accidental Quality of Land Ownership and Compensation for the Unexhausted Value of Improvement (In Japanese). Journal of Agricultural Economics. 66 (4) Pp. 202-209.
عصام عبد الوهاب محمد (1995) أثر نوع ملكية علي القيمة التعويضية لعمليات تحسين الأرض الغير مستنفذة . مجلة الاقتصاد الزراعي . المجلد (66) العدد الرابع : 202-209.
Issam A.W. Mohamed and Hiroyuki Takeya (1995) Agricultural Systems and Resources Productivity in Sahelian Africa. Journal of Agricultural Development Studies. Vol. 5(2): 70-80.
عصام عبد الوهاب محمد وهيرويوكي تاكيا (1995) النظم الزراعية وإنتاجية الموارد في الساحل الأفريقي . مجلة دراسات التنمية الزراعية . المجلد (5) العدد الثاني : 70-80 .
Issam A.W. Mohamed and Yoji Takeoka (1995) Improvement of Human Resources in Agricultural Production (In Japanese). Keizai Ronso (The Economic Digest) Vol. 2 (3): Pp. 1-10.
عصام عبد الوهاب محمد ويوجي تاكيأكوكا (1995) تحسين الموارد البشرية في الإنتاج الزراعي . الملخص الاقتصادي . المجلد (2) العدد الثالث : 202-209.
Issam A.W. Mohamed (1995) An Overview of the Economic Development of the African Traditional Sector. The Economic Review. Vol. 27 (1): Pp. 3-18.
عصام عبد الوهاب محمد (1995) تحليل للتنمية الزراعية في القطاع الزراعي التقليدي في أفريقيا . المرجع الاقتصادي . المجلد (27) العدد الأول : 3-18.
Issam A.W. Mohamed (1994) The Role of Economies and Economists in Environmental Policy. Journal of Environmental Economics. Vol. 21 (3): Pp. 45-56.
عصام عبد الوهاب محمد (1994) دور علم الاقتصاد والاقتصاديون في رسم السياسات البيئية . المجلد (21) العدد الثالث : 45-46.
Issam A.W. Mohamed and Hiroyuki Takeya (1994) Agricultural Development, Rural Poverty and Income Distribution in the Sudan. Journal of Agricultural Development Studies. Vol. 4 (2): Pp. 1-11.
عصام عبد الوهاب محمد وهيرويوكي تاكيا (1994) أثر التنمية الزراعية علي الفقر الريفي وتوزيع الدخل في السودان . مجلة دراسات التنمية الزراعية . المجلد (4) العدد الثاني : 1-11.
Issam A.W. Mohamed (1994) Sudan’s Livestock Economy. The Economic Review. Vol. 40 (2): Pp. 36-44.
عصام عبد الوهاب محمد (1994) اقتصاديات الثروة الحيوانية في السودان . العرض الاقتصادي . المجلد (40) العدد الثاني : 36-44 .
Issam A.W. Mohamed, Yoji Takeoka and Hiroyuki Takeya (1994) An Assessment of the Environmental Degradation in the Sahel Region (In Japanese). Japan Journal for Crop Science. Vol. 63 (4): Pp. 734-738.
عصام عبد الوهاب محمد ويوجي تاكيأوكا وهيرويوكي تاكيا (1994) تقييم حقلي للتجرد البيئي في منطقة الساحل الأفريقي . المجلة اليابانية لعلوم المحاصيل . المجلد (63) العدد الرابع : 734-738 .
Issam A.W. Mohamed (1994) Reversing the Decline. Agricultural Policy in Sub Saharan Africa: A General Review. Journal of Economic Development Research. Vol. 11 (3): Pp. 19-33.
عصام عبد الوهاب محمد (1994) تحليل اقتصادي لأثر السياسات الزراعية في جنوب الصحراء الأفريقية علي الإنتاج . مجلة بحوث التنمية الاقتصادية . المجلد (11) العدد الثالث : 19-33 .
Issam A.W. Mohamed, Yoji Takeoka and Hiroyuki Takeya (1994) Changes of the Agricultural Production Systems and Encroachment of Desertification in the Sahel (In Japanese). Japan Journal for Crop Science. Vol. 118: Pp. 49-54.
عصام عبد الوهاب محمد ويوجي تاكيأوكا وهيرويوكي تاكيا (1994) أثر التغيرات في نظم الإنتاج الزراعي والزحف الصحراوي في الساحل الأفريقي . المجلة اليابانية لعلوم المحاصيل. المجلد (118) 49-54 .
Issam A.W. Mohamed and Hiroyuki Takeya (1994) Sources of Productivity in the Traditional and the Mechanized Farming in the Sudan (In Japanese). Chubo Agricultural Economists VII Conference, Gifu, Japan. Published in the Proceedings: Pp. 27-37.
عصام عبد الوهاب محمد وهيرويوكي تاكيا (1994) المصادر الإنتاجية لنظم الزراعة التقليدية والآلية في السودان . ورقة قدمت ونشرت في مؤتمر تشوبو الرابع للاقتصاديين الزراعيين . جيفو – اليابان : 27-37 .
Issam A.W. Mohamed and Hiroyuki Takeya (1994) Sustainability of Agriculture: Conceptual Trends in Underdeveloped Situation. 3rd Annual Conference of the Japanese Society of Regional and Agricultural Development: Tsukuba, Japan.
عصام عبد الوهاب محمد وهيرويوكي تاكيا (1994) تحليل لمفهوم الاستدامة في الزراعة تحت ظروف التنمية المتخلفة . المؤتمر الثالث للجمعية اليابانية الإقليمية للتنمية الزراعية . تسوكوبا ، اليابان .
Issam A.W. Mohamed and Yoji Takeoka (1994) A Dual Economy Model of New Keynesian Type with Self-Employing Producers. Towards the Principles of Agricultural Macroeconomics (In Japanese). Journal of Agricultural Economics Research. Vol. 66 (1): Pp. 1-11.
عصام عبد الوهاب محمد ويوجي تاكيأوكا (1994) نموذج اقتصادي ازدواجي للكينيزية الجديدة بالتطبيق علي العمالة الذاتية . مجلة بحوث الاقتصاد الزراعي المجلد (66) العدد الأول : 1-11.
Issam A.W. Mohamed and Yoji Takeoka (1993) Relationships of Global Environmental Conservation Systems and the Development of Agriculture (In Japanese). Journal of Rural Economy. Vol. 12 (5) Pp. 68-73.
عصام عبد الوهاب محمد ويوجي تاكيأوكا (1993) العلاقة بين نظم المحافظة علي البيئة والتنمية الزراعية . مجلة الاقتصاد الريفي . المجلد (12) العدد الخامس : 68-73 .
Issam A.W. Mohamed (1993) Clarifications of the Concept of Sustainability in Agriculture and an Overview of the History of Agricultural Technology (In Japanese). Keizai Ronso (The Economic Digest). Vol. 65 (1) Pp. 2-11.
عصام عبد الوهاب محمد (1993) توضيح لمفاهيم الاستدامة الزراعية واستطلاع لتاريخ تطور التقنية الزراعية . المستخلص الاقتصادي . المجلد (65) العدد الأول : 2-11 .
Issam A.W. Mohamed (1993) Remedial Taxes and Auctions of Land Rights in Controlling Externalities. Eastern Economic Journal. Vol. 19 (2) Pp. 27-32.
عصام عبد الوهاب محمد (1993) أثر الضرائب المعالجة والحقوق الأرض في معالجة المؤثرات الاقتصادية الخارجية . المجلة الاقتصادية الشرقية . المجلد (19) العدد الثاني : 27-32 .
Issam A.W. Mohamed (1993) Agricultural Development, Deforestation, Sustainability and Policy Implications in Africa. A Preliminary Note. Journal of Economic Development Research. Vol. 10 (1) Pp. 192-211.
عصام عبد الوهاب محمد (1993) أثر السياسات الزراعية علي التنمية والتعرية الغابية والاستدامة في أفريقيا . مجلة بحوث اقتصاديات التنمية . المجلد (10) العدد الأول : 192-211 .
Issam A.W. Mohamed (1993) Comprehensive Sustainable Development Strategies of Marginal Regions: the Integration of Proximate Rainfed Lands in the Sudan. The Proceedings of the 2nd Nilo-Ethiopian II Conference. October-Nagoya, Japan. Pp. 127-136.
عصام عبد الوهاب محمد (1993) استراتيجيات التنمية المستدامة للأقاليم الهامشية بالتطبيق علي الأراضي النيلية في السودان . ورقة قدمت ونشرت في محاضر مؤتمر النيل-إثيوبيا الثاني . اكتو بر (1993) ناجويا – اليابان .
Issam A.W. Mohamed (1991) Changes of Agricultural Structure in the Sahel and its Implications of Drought and Famine. The XXI IAAE (International Association of Agricultural Economists) Conference, Tokyo, August 1991. Contributed Papers published by the Proceedings of the Agricultural Economics Society of Japan. Pp. 42-57.
عصام عبد الوهاب محمد (1991) أثر التغيرات في النظم الزراعية في الساحل الأفريقي علي الجفاف والمجاعة . ورقة قدمت ونشرت في محاضر المؤتمر العاشر للجمعية العالمية للاقتصاديين الزراعيين في اليابان 1991 .
Issam A.W. Mohamed and Farouk Salih (1988) Economic Analysis for the Effects of Feeding Poultry Manure on Growth under Sudanese Conditions. Sudan Journal of Animal Production. Vol. 1 (1) Pp. 56-60.
Recently Scholarly Published Papers on International Journals
(Paper and Journal Volume, Date of Publication and Number, Sponsoring Institute and Internet address). Click on the Link to Read.
First: The Social Science Research Network
http://www.ssrn.com
Published by Chicago Booth: University of Chicago, Booth School of Business http://www.chicagobooth.edu/,
European Corporate Governance Institute,
http://www.ecgi.org/
Stanford Law School, http://www.law.stanford.edu/
Korea University, http://www.korea.ac.kr/~eng/
Keys: Paper Tile, Journal name, issue, number, volume, date, Authors, Institution and electronic published link on the internet.
1. Hyenas and Lambs: The Implications of Impacts of South Sudan Secession
Conflict Studies Journal, Vol. 5, No. 14, February 11, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1748608
2. The Impact of Privatization on State-Owned Enterprises Performance and Efficiency: Case Study of Sudan Airways
Antitrust Law and Policy Journal, Vol. 3, No. 21, February 28, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1761297
3 The Janjaweed, the Armed Movements and the Political Disintegration of Sudan
Conflict Studies Journal, Vol. 5, No. 8, January 28, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1733012
4 Trade Liberalization and Poverty in Sudan
Journal of Emerging Markets Economics: Environmental & Social Aspects, Vol. 2, No. 27, March 18, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1775504
5 Challenges of Formal Social Security Systems in Sudan
Global Journal of Human Social Sciences (GJHSS), Vol. 11, No. 2, March 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1728684
6 The Impacts of Health Insurance System on Poverty Alleviation in Sudan: Case Study of the National Fund for Health Insurance in Khartoum State (2003-2009)
Health Economics Journal. Vol. 3, No. 52, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed and Kamal M. Osman
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1810662
7 Review of Relationships Between Trade Liberalization and Poverty in Developing Countries
Journal of Development Economics, Vol. 3, No. 54, March 17, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1775823
8 Analysis of Impact of Cash Out-Flow from the Banking Sector on the Sudanese Economy
Banking and Financial Institutions Journal, Vol. 3, No. 39, March 7, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1767387
9 Effects of Macroeconomic Variables on Inflation Rates in Sudan (1990-2008)
Macroeconomics, Prices, Business Fluctuations and Cycles Journal, Vol. 4, No. 39, March 28, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1791362
10 The Impacts of Social Justice and Wealth Distribution in Sudan (In Arabic)
Law, Institutions and Development Journal, Vol. 9, No. 10, February 23, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1767387
11 Economic Vision for Regional Nile River Basin Planning
Political Economy: Development Journal, Vol. 4, No. 42, March 07, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1755282
12 Kleptocracy, Totalitarianism and Corruption
Institutions and Transition Economics Political Economy Journal, Vol. 3, No. 23, March 16, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1772003
13 Potentials of Irrigated Agriculture in Improvement of Food Security in Southern Sudan
Journal of Development Economics, Vol. 3, No. 68, April 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1793385
14 Sudanese North-South Border Tribes, Economic Interactions and Seeds of Conflict
Conflict Resolution and Prevention Management, Forthcoming
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1826045
15 Totalitarianism, Elections and Inevitable Demise
Political Institutions and Elections Journal, Vol. 4, No. 12, March 17, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1771082
16 Economics of Water Use in Semi-Arid Environment: Darfur Case Study
Emerging Markets Economics, Environmental and Social Aspects Journal, Vol. 2, No. 24, March 15, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1769630
17 Oil Discovery, Exploitation and Curse in Sudan
Political Institutions, Bureaucracies and Public Administration, Vol. 5, No. 39, March 17, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1772843
18 Referendum, Secession and Intermixed Tribal Structure in Western-Southern Sudan
National, State and Local Government; Intergovernmental Relations Journal, Vol. 4, No. 55, April 27, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1810602
19 Statistical Approaches and System Dynamics
Econometrics, Mathematical Method and Programming Journal, Vol. 4. No. 35, May 09, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1829221
20 Totalitarianism, Economic Growth and Corruption
Microeconomics, Welfare Economics and Collective Decision-Making Journal, Vol. 3, No. 92, June 02, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1847468
21 Cloning Totalitarianism and Surviving Political Change in Sudan
Comparative Political Economy Journal, Vol. 5, No. 57, April 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1802619
22 Review of Civil Armed Conflicts and Impacts on Education in Darfur Crisis
Immigration, Refugee and Citizenship Law Journal, Vol. 12, No. 33, April 5, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1795470
23 The Political Economy and the Risks of Institutional Reforms in the River Nile Water Rights
Institutional Economics Journal, Vol. 3, No. 33, May 27, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1845905
24 Political Empowerment, Corruption and the Nation Crisis
Political Institutions, Bureaucracies and Public Administration Journal, Vol. 5, No. 38, March 16, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1771826
25 Dynamic Model for the Maximization of Dams Hydroelectric Power Generation
Econometrics, Mathematical Methods and Programming Journal, Vol. 4, No. 15, February 16, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed and Alrayah Mohammed Ishag
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics and affiliation not provided to SSRN
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1756794
26 Effects of Direct Foreign Capital on Economic Performance of Developing Countries: Case Study of Sudan (2000-2009)
International Finance Journal, Vol. 3, No. 71, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1801651
27 Nomads of Savannah, the Messeirya Tribe of Sudan and the Abyei Referendum Conflict (in Arabic)
Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics Journal, Vol. 3, No. 61, April 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1799631
28 On Poverty, Employment, Food Security and Political Impacts in Sudan
Poverty, Income Distribution and Income Assistance Journal, Vol. 3, No. 7, April 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed and Kamal M. Osman
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics and Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1805792
29 Reviewing Poverty Measurements and Analysis
Philosophy and Methodology of Economics, Vol. 2, No. 28, March 17, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1774603
30 Analysis of the Educational Statistics of the Sudanese Secondary Certificate
Labor and Human Capital, March 30, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1791703
31 Empowerment and the State Crisis in Sudan
Law, Institutions and Development Journal, April 4, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1791310
32 Globalization and Economic Partnerships Effects on International Trade with Reference to Sudan
Development Economics Journal, Vol. 3, No. 74, April 14, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
Date Posted: April 1, 2011
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1799465
33 Partnership Patterns and Trade Between Arab Countries
International Trade Journal, Vol. 3, No. 69, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1799435
34 Using GARCH Model in the Analysis of Trade Liberalization and Poverty in Developing Countries
International and Comparative Law. Vol. 6, No. 32, March 14, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1773105
35 Appraisal of System Dynamics and Utility in the Economic Analysis
Macroeconomics Aggregative Models Journal, Vol. 4, No. 41, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1825239
36 Coup De Etat, Fraud, Counterfeited Elections and the Art of Tearing a Nation
Public Choice, Analysis of Collective Decision-Making Journal. Vol. 4, No. 85, May 05, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1800208
37 Economics of Water Use for Commodity Production in Scarcity Arid Regions: Kutum, Darfur
Development Economics Journal, Vol. 3, No. 49, March 10, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1769892
38 Impacts of Southern Sudan Secession on the Hawazma Nomads of Southern Kordofan
National, State, Local Government and Intergovernmental Relations Journal, Vol. 4, No. 64, May 16, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1825927
40 Political Mess, Lost Chances and Dark Future
Political Institutions and Non-Democratic Regimes Journal, Vol. 4, No. 22, May 18, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1832746
41 Strategies of Conflict Resolution: Causes of War and Seeds of Peace in Abyei of Southern Kordofan
Institutions and Transition Economics, Political Economy Journal, Vol. 3, No. 42, May 30, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1844617
42 Surveying HIV/AIDS Epidemic in Khartoum State with Reference to Economic Impacts
Health Economics Journal, Vol. 3, No. 43, April 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1807338
43 The Effects of Trade Liberalization and Partnerships on the Sudanese Economy: Analysis of COMESA
International Trade Journal, Vol. 3, No. 50, March 14, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1774513
44 The Sudanese Agriculture Development, History, Policies and Sustainability
Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics Journal. Vol. 3, No. 82, May 06, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1829469
45 An Analysis of Behavioral Growth Rates in Iraq Pre-Second Gulf War (In Arabic)
Political Analysis Quantitative Methods Journal, Vol. 5, No. 7, February 14, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1753755
46 Analysis of the Impacts of Money Supply on Income and Prices in the Sudan
Monetary Economics, Vol. 3, No. 53, March 25, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1790470
47 Oil Explorations and Socioeconomic Impacts of Production in Sudan (in Arabic)
Energy Law and Policy Journal, Vol. 3, No. 15, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1792147
48 An Overview of Economic Patterns of Partnerships Between Developing and Rich Countries with Special Reference to USA and Sudan
International Trade Journal, Vol. 3, No. 70, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1799438
49 Applying System Dynamics Model for Macroeconomic Analysis of Yemen
Econometrics, Mathematical Methods and Programming Journal, Vol. 4, No. 38, May 19, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1825905
50 Armed Conflicts and Impacts on Education in Darfur Crisis
Labor and Human Capital Journal, Vol. 3, No. 54, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1795123
51 Economic Perspective of Indigenous Knowledge Systems, Technology Transfer and Rural Water Use in Darfur
Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics Journal, Vol. 3, No. 42, March 11, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1770585
52 Empowerment, Corruption, Hoarding, Economic Chaos and Political Demise in Sudan
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1857529
53 Hegemony, Islamic and Arab Economic Blocks Versus Globalization and International Trade Agreements
National, State and Local Government Intergovernmental Relations Journal. Vol. 4, No. 59, May 04, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed and Mohamed A. Osman
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1823716
54 Human Capital and the Economic Role of Women in Darfur-Sudan (Arabic)
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1761470
Working Paper Series
55 Human Rights Violations, Missing Justice, Civil Conflicts and Darfur Political Future
Transitional Justice Journal. Vol. 2, Issue 18, June 10, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1847444
56 Implications of Economic Interactions Between Northern and Southern Tribes of Sudan
Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics, Vol. 3, No. 46, March 17, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1777325
57 Notes on Across-Border Resources and Livelihood of the White Nile's Tribes Region after Secession of Southern Sudan (in Arabic)
Conflict Studies Journal, Vol. 5, No. 56, June 02, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1837824
58 Racism and the State, Discrimination and Disintegration
Political Behavior, Race, Ethnicity and Identity Politics Journal, Vol. 5, 55, May, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1833509
59 Roots of Conflict, Arabs, Muslim and Historical Resources Conflicts (in Arabic)
Conflict Studies Journal, Vol. 5, No. 54, May 31, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed and Mohamed A. Osman
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics and Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1829509
60 Secession and Tribal Conflicts in Western Sudan (in Arabic)
Comparative Political Economy Journal, Vol. 5, No. 58, April 25, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1802758
61 Short Review of Rural Development in Sudan
Development Economics Journal, Vol. 3, No. 84, April 28, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1807335
62 The Economics of Management and Financial Systems in Public Projects in Sudan
Journal of Development Economics, Vol. 3, No. 79, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1804341
63 The Structure of the Yemeni Economy (1990-2008)
Macroeconomics, National Income and Product Accounts Journal, Vol. 4, No. 11, April 18, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1801484
64 Theories of International Trade and Impacts of Hegemony (in Arabic)
International Trade Journal, Vol. 3, No. 95, May 18, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed and Mohamed A. Osman
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics and Al-Neelain University
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1833730
65 Changing Coins: Economic Conditions, Terrorism, Political Regime and the Utility of Emergency Status in Stabilizing Staggering Systems
Journal of Development Economics, Vol. 3, No. 78, April 20, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1802643
66 Empirical Applications for Survey Data on HIV/AIDS Epidemic in Khartoum State
Health Economics Journal, Vol. 3, No. 57, May 11, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1832769
67 Evaluation of Sustainability from Socioeconomic and Political Approach in the Rosieres Project Study Area of the Blue Nile States
Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics Journal, Vol. 3, No. 86, May 17, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1831481
68 Globalization and Economic Partnerships Effects on International Trade with Reference to Sudan
International Trade Journal, Vol. 3, No. 65, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1799803
69 Impacts of the Political Regime on the High Education System of Sudan
Public Economics Journal, Vol. 6, No. 21, May 9, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1833492
70 Sovereignty and Politics, Hegemony and Survival
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1861908
71 The Impacts of the Social Infrastructure on the Sudanese Civil Society Institutions: Case Study of Khartoum
Issam A.W. Mohamed and Mohamed A. Osman
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics and Al-Neelain University
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1856613
72 Cowboy and Bandits, International Society and National Disintegration
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1861921
73 Defining Aspects and Theories of Food Security in Sudan
Development Economics Journal, Vol. 3, No. 113, June 8, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1852806
74 Effects of the Economic and Environmental Factors on the Rural Water Use in Darfur Region, Sudan
Environmental Economics Journal, Vol. 3, No. 42, March 10, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1771766
75 Policies Determining Food and Nutrition Information Environment in Sudan
Health Economics Journal, Vol. 3, No. 66, June 6, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1852807
76 The Impacts of Imbalanced Development on Migration: Case Study of Khartoum State, Sudan
Urban Economics and Regional Studies Journal, Vol. 4, No. 86, May 26, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1842394
77 Assessment of Macroeconomic Variables Performance of the Sudanese Economy (1970-2008)
Journal of Development Economics, Vol. 3, No. 75, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1800243
78 Empirical Data Analysis of HIV/AIDS in Sudan with Reference to Khartoum State
Econometrics, Data Collection and Data Estimation Methodology Journal. Vol. 4, Issue 45, June 27, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1800243
79 Land Dispute, Property Hoarding and Social Uprising in Sudan
Property, Citizenship and Social Entrepreneurism Journal, Vol. 8, No. 21, June 23, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed and Mohamed A. Osman
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics and Al-Neelain University
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1857528
80 Ninety Nine Mountains, Self Determination and the Secession Off Sudan
Political Economy, National, State and Local Government; Intergovernmental Relations Journal,. Vol. 4, No. 69, May 24, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1842393
81 Review of Regional Development and Crisis in Greater Darfur State
Political Economy, Government Expenditures and Related Policies Journal, Vol. 4, No. 62, April 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1805889
82 Review of Somalia, Greed, Colonization and Socioeconomic Impacts
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1858865
83 The Impacts of Water Pollution on Economic Development in Sudan
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1871767
84 Brief Introduction of Macroeconomic Structure of Yemen (1990-2005)
Macroeconomics, Monetary and Fiscal Policies Journal, Vol. 4, No. 72, May 13, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1825904
85 Sustainability and Economic Development in Southern Rossereis Agricultural Project in the Blue Nile State-Sudan
Environmental Economics Journal, Vol. 3, No. 79, May 12, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1829446
86 Bringing Down the Temple on Everyone's Head: Suicide by Economic Demise
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1871951
87 Economic and Environmental Effects and Rural Water Use in Darfur Region, Sudan
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1871805
88 On Tyranny and Economic Greed: The NCP and the Disintegration of the Sudanese Nation
Human Rights and the Global Economy Journal, Vol. 5, No. 2, January 11, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1732921
89 Power Game, Stockholm Pathogen, Tyranny and the Disintegration of the Sudanese Nation
Institutions and Transition Economics, Political Economy Journal, Vol. 3, No. 9, January 17, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1733845
90 The Crisis of a Nation
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1872884
91 The Impacts of Public Expenditure on GDP in UAE (1990-2009)
Macroeconomics, Monetary and Fiscal Policies Journal, Vol. 4, No. 20, February 4, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1753733
92 The Impacts of Southern Sudan Post-Secession on the White Nile Province Tribalism and Civil Administration
PSN Conflict Studies Journal, Vol. 5, No. 20, February 24, 2011
Issam A.W. Mohamed
Al-Neelain University - Department of Economics
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1757834
Second: Papers accepted and Deposited at the University of Munich Library, Repec Research papers on Economics), Science Gate and Econpaper (Economic papers)

Property Rights, Land Disputes and Social Discontent in Sudan
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Impacts of Tribal and Economic Factors on Civil Conflict between North and South Sudan
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Tyrannical Greed and National Disintegration of the Sudanese Nation
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Economics and Hegemony; Globalization and International Trade Agreements
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The Impacts of Water Pollution on Economic Development in Sudan
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Empirical Analysis of Field Data on HIV/AIDS Epidemic in Khartoum State, Sudan
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Introduction to the Macroeconomic Structure of Yemen
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Surveying HIV/AIDS Incidence in Sudan
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The economic and environmental factors of water in arid regions: Study of the rural water use in Northern Darfur Region, Sudan
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Utilizing System Dynamics Models in Analyzing Macroeconomic Variables of Yemen
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السيادة والسياسة ، والهيمنة والبقاء
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إستعراض للموقف في الصومال ، الجشع ، الاستعمار والآثار الاقتصادية والاجتماعية
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Challenges of formal social security systems in Sudan
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Optimization of hydroelectric power generation, case study of Roseires Dam in Sudan
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Books
الكتب
مناهج البحث العلمي
The Impacts of Macroeconomic Adjustments on Sub Sahara Africa.
An Assessment of Groundwater Economic Potentials in Greater Darfur.
Academic Supervision
Supervision of Post Graduate Dissertations
0 Master Degrees in Economic Development
(Master Degree in Economic Development) The Impacts of Unbalanced Economic Development on Immigration in the Sudan: Case Study of Khartoum State. Lena Mohamed Ahmed Abdel Salam (2007).
(ماجستير التنمية الاقتصادية) أثر التنمية الغير متوازنة علي الهجرة في السودان : دراسة حالة ولاية الخرطوم . لينا محمد أحمد عبد السلام (2007) .
(Master Degree in Economic Development) The Contribution of Selected Regions in Sustainable Human Development: Case Study of Lower Atbara. Khalid Alamin Mohamed Salih. Awarded by Alneelain University (2000).
(ماجستير التنمية الاقتصادية) اسهامات مشاريع المناطق المختارة في التنمية البشرية المستدامة . دراسة حالة أدني نهر عطبرة . خالد الأمين محمد صالح . جامعة النيلين (2000) .
(Master Degree in Economic Development) The Investment Conditions in the Sudan during 1961-1998. Saida Ahmad Ibrahim. Awarded by Alneelain University (2000).
(ماجستير التنمية الاقتصادية) تحليل لأثر الظروف الاستثمارية في السودان خلال الأعوام 1961-1998 . سيدة أحمد إبراهيم . جامعة النيلين (2000) .
(Master Degree in Economic Development) Analysis of the Impacts of Structural Adjustment Programs in the Sudan. Mohamed Abdalla Ali. Awarded by Alneelain University (2000).
(ماجستير التنمية الاقتصادية) تحليل اقتصادي لآثار برامج التكيف الهيكلي الاقتصادي في السودان (2000) محمد عبد الله علي .
(Master Degree in Economic Development) An Economic Analysis for the Production and Exportation of Oilseeds in the Sudan. (1980-1998). Ishraqa Mohamed Alhag. Awarded by Alneelain University (2000).
(ماجستير التنمية الاقتصادية) تحليل اقتصادي لإنتاج وتصدير الحبوب الزيتية في السودان بين 1980-1998. إشراقة محمد الحاج (2000) .
(Master Degree in Economic Development) The Effects of Intermediary Industries on the Development of Sudanese Economy. Babikr Mohamed Fadl. Awarded by Alneelain University (2000).
(ماجستير التنمية الاقتصادية) أثر الصناعات التحويلية الوسيطة علي تنمية الاقتصاد السوداني . بابكر محمد فضل (2000) .
(Master Degree in Economic Development) The Impact of Industrial Taxation on the Industrial Development in the Sudan. Garwig Peter Garkuth. Awarded by Alneelain University (2000).
(ماجستير التنمية الاقتصادية) الأثر الضريبي علي التنمية الصناعية في السودان . بيتر جاد كوث (2000) .
(Master Degree in Economic Development) The Role of the Specialized Financing Institutes on Supporting the Weak Strata of the Sudanese Society. Case Study: Bank of Social Development and Savings. Alnazeer Ali Awouda. Awarded by Alneelain University (2000).
(ماجستير التنمية الاقتصادية) دور المؤسسات التمويلية المتخصصة في دعم الشرائح الضعيفة في المجتمع السوداني : دراسة حالة مصرف الادخار والتنمية الاجتماعية . النذير علي عووضة (2000) .
(Master Degree in Economic Development) Problems and Remedies of Sudan’s Exports. The Oilseeds Case Study. Nadia Abdalaziz. Awarded by Alneelain University (2000).
(ماجستير التنمية الاقتصادية) تحليل اقتصادي لمشاكل وعلاج الصادرات السودانية : دراسة حالة الحبوب الزيتية . ناديا عبد العزيز (2000) .
(Master Degree in Economic Development) The Impacts of Banks' Financing on the Agricultural Production in the Sudan. Ikhlas Mahmud Siddiq. Awarded by Alneelain University (2000).
(ماجستير التنمية الاقتصادية) أثر التمويل المصرفي علي الإنتاج الزراعي السوداني . إخلاص محمود صديق (2000) .
(Master Degree in Economic Development) Leather Industries and their Contribution in Supporting the Sudanese National Economy. Hala Khalil Musa. Awarded by Alneelain University (2000).
(ماجستير التنمية الاقتصادية) مساهمة الصناعات الجلدية في دعم الاقتصاد السوداني . هالة خليل موسى (2000) .
(Master Degree in Economic Development) The Role of Sudanese Exports in Ameliorating National Economy. Zeinab Awad Musa. Awarded by Alneelain University (2000).
(ماجستير التنمية الاقتصادية) دور الصادرات السودانية في تحسين الدخل القومي . زينب عوض موسى (2000) .
(Master Degree In Economic Development) The Impact of the Industrial Sector of the Sudan on the National Economy. Mona Khedir Alsheik. Awarded by Alneelain University (2000).
(ماجستير التنمية الاقتصادية) أثر إسهام القطاع الصناعي علي الاقتصاد القومي السوداني (2000) . مني خضر الشيخ .
(Master Degree in Economic Development) The Economics and Social Impacts of Solar Energy on Development. Case Study: the Lighting System in Northern Kordofan. Howida Suliman Mohamed. Awarded by Alneelain University (2000).
(ماجستير التنمية الاقتصادية) اقتصاديات والأثر الاجتماعي للطاقة الشمسية علي التنمية : دراسة حالة الإضاءة في شمال كردفان . (2000) .
14. (Master Degree in Economic Development) The Impacts of the Application of World Trade Organization Treaty on Pharmaceutical Industry of the Sudan. Sumaia Omar Abdel Ghani (2006).
الآثار الاقتصادية لانضمام السودان لمنظمة التجارة العالمية علي كفاءة تشغيل صناعة الدواء في السودان . سمية عمر عبد الغني (2006) .
Supervised Master’s Degrees in Economics
(Master Degree in Economics) The Impacts of Monetary Policies on Sudanese Banks Profits. Fadil Musa, Al Neelain University (2010).
The Effects of Income on Labor Productivity with Special Reference to Human Resources. Hussien Osman Hussien, Al Neelain University. (2009).
(Master Degree in Economics) The Impacts of Displacement on the Socioeconomic Conditions of Women: Case Study of El Baraka Camp, Khartoum State. Africa University (2009).
(Master Degree in Economics) Methods of Conflict Resolution in Ruwanda: Applied Field Survey of the Nianza City (1990-2008). Maniraho Mohamed. Africa International University (2010).
(Master Degree in Economics) Effects of Inflation on Some Macroeconomic Variables: Application in Sudan (1990-2007). Almardi Bala Abdallah. Al Neelain University (2009).
(Master Degree in Economics) Analysis of the Co-integration between Taxation Revenues and Macroeconomic Variables of the Sudan (1989-2007). Mona Mohamed Babikr, Al Neelain University (2009).
(Master Degree in Economics) The Impacts of Training and Vocation on the Development of Human Resources in Sudan: Case Study of Rabaat University Hospital Workers. Osman Hussein Tounis, Al Neelain University (2010).
(Master Degree in Economics) The Impacts of Macroeconomic Policies on Investments in Sudan (1985-2003) Nicola Mario Abdallah, Al Neelain University, (2009).
(Master Degree in Economics) The effects of Taxation on the Reduction of Environmental Pollution: Case Study of Japanese Textile Factory. Siham Salah Aldeen, Al Neelain University (2009).
(Master Degree in Economics) The effect of Economic Globalization on Developing Countries. Case Study of Sudatel-Sudan. Hassan Abdallah Gubara, Al Neelain University (2010).
(Master Degree in Economics) Econometric Analysis for the Effect of Commercial Trade on the Economic Balance in Sudan (1983-2008) Sara Abdel Gader Hassn, Al Neelain University (2011).
(Master Degree in Economics) Estimation of the Investment Function in Sudan (1979-2008) Abu Obaida Ibrahim Adallah, Al Neelain University (2010).
(Master Degree in Economics) The Effect of Changes in Macroeconomic Variables on Inflation Rates in Sudan (1990-2008). Abu Bakr Mohamed Al Hag Abakar, Al Neelain University (2011).
(Master Degree in Economics) External Trade and River Nile Riparian Countries. Africa International University (2010).
The Impacts of External Debts on Gross Domestic Production of the Sudan (1980-2009). Nahid Humida Jaber, Al Neelain University (2011).
(Master Degree in Economics) Analysis of the Impacts of Global Financial Crisis on the Sudanese Economy. Ibrahim Adam Abakar, Al Neelain University (2011).
(Master Degree in Economics) Assessment of the Economic Effects of Direct Financial Influx on Sudanese Capital Account by Using Autoregressive Integrated Moving Averages-ARIMA (1980-2010). Abdel Fatah Tag Alsir, Alneelain University (2010).
(Master Degree in Economics) The Effect of Investment Environment on the Agricultural Sector of the Sudan. Alsir Mohamed Hussein Ali, Alneelain University (2008).
(Master Degree in Economics) The Effect of Murabaha Formulae on the Efficiency of Financing Economic Development in Sudan. Case Study of Tadamun Islamic Bank (2000-2009) Mamoto Dembli, Al Neelain University, (2010).
(Master Degree in Economics) The Socioeconomic Effects of Globalization on Poor Developing Countries; Case Study of Sudan. Hashi Hussein Abdel Mageed, Al Neelain University (2010).
(Master Degree in Economics) The Effects of Increasing Capital on the Performance and Efficiency of Banks. Case Study of National and Foreign Financed Banks in Sudan. Al Alsheik Alsaeed, Al Neelain University (2009).
(Master Degree in Economics)
(Master Degree in Economics) The Impact of Energy on Industrial Production in Khartoum State (1999-2002) Sawsan Gafaar Hassan (2007).
(ماجستير في العلوم الاقتصادية) أثر الطاقة علي الانتاج الصناعي في ولاية الخرطوم (1999-2002) سوسن جعفر حسن (2007) .
(Master Degree in Economics) The Role of Transborder Trade in Sustaining the Sudanese National Economy. Nimaat Mohamed Salih. Awarded by Alneelain University. (2005).
(ماجستير في العلوم الاقتصادية) دور تجارة الحدود في دعم الاقتصاد القومي السوداني . نعمات محمد صالح محمد محمود (2005) .
(Master Degree in Economics) Using Dynamic Models for Inducing the Sudanese National Economy. Jihad Ibrahim Ahmed. Awarded by Alneelain University (2006).
(ماجستير في العلوم الاقتصادية) نماذج حركية لتقدير أثر الاستثمار الأجنبي والوطني على تحفيز الاقتصاد السوداني بحث لنيل درجة الماجستير في الاقتصاد . جهاد إبراهيم أحمد إبراهيم (2006) .
(Master Degree in Economics) Analysis of Variables Affecting Wheat Production Function in the Sudan (1970-1999) Makki Hassan Mohamed Salih (2006).
(ماجستير في العلوم الاقتصادية) تحليل للعوامل المؤثرة في دالة انتاج القمح في السودان (1970-1999) مكي حسن اسماعيل صالح (2006) .
(Master Degree in Economics) The Impacts of Money Supply on Income and Prices in the Sudan (1992-2002). Abubeker Abdalla Omer. Awarded by Alneelain University (2005).
(ماجستير في العلوم الاقتصادية) أثر عرض النقود علي الدخل والأسعار في السودان (1992-2002) . أبو بكر عبد الله عمر (2005) .
(Master Degree in Economics) The Economic Role of Nile River’s Water and Contribution on Achieving Economic Development in the Sudan. Mohamed Abdel Fadeel Al Sunni. Awarded by Alneelain University (2005).
(ماجستير في العلوم الاقتصادية) دور مياه النيل ومساهمتها في تحقيق التنمية الاقتصادية في السودان . محمد عبد الفضيل السني (2005) .
(Master Degree in Economics) The Impacts of Water Pollution on Economic Development. Case Study: the Sudanese-Japanese Weaving Factory. Taisir Mubashar Awarded by Alneelain University (2005).
(ماجستير في العلوم الاقتصادية) أثر تلوث المياه علي التنمية الاقتصادية : دراسة حالة مصنع النسيج الياباني . تيسير مبشر (2005) .
(Master Degree in Economics) The Impacts of the Internal Migration on the Economic Development: Analysis of Migration from the Northern State to the Capital Khartoum. Amani Mohamed Yasin. Awarded by Alneelain University (2004)
(ماجستير في العلوم الاقتصادية) أثر الهجرة الداخلية علي التنمية الاقتصادية في السودان . دراسة حالة الهجرة من الولاية الشمالية إلي الخرطوم (2004) . أماني محمد يسن .
(Master Degree in Economics) The Economic Impacts of Tax Exemptions on Investments in the Sudan. Hafez Ibrahim Ahmed. Awarded by Alneelain University (2004).
(ماجستير في العلوم الاقتصادية) الأثر الاقتصادي للإعفاءات الجمركية علي الاستثمار في السودان . حافظ إبراهيم أحمد محمد (2004) .
(Master Degree in Economics) The Impacts of Macroeconomic Variables on the Exports of Live and Slaughtered Livestock of the Sudan. Hanadi Abbas Karoum. Awarded by Alneelain University (2005).
(ماجستير في العلوم الاقتصادية) أثر عوامل الاقتصاد الكلي علي صادرات الماشية الحية واللحوم المذبوحة في السودان . هنادي عباس عمر كروم (2005) .
(Master Degree in Economics) The Impacts of Globalization on Developing Countries: Case Study of the Sudanese Agricultural Sector. Ahmed Mohamed Omar. Awarded by Alneelain University (2004).
(ماجستير في العلوم الاقتصادية) أثر العولمة علي الدول النامية : دراسة حالة القطاع الزراعي السوداني . أحمد محمد عمر عثمان (2004) .
(Master Degree in Economics) The Impact of Financing on the Agricultural Production in the Sudan. Ibrahim Bakheet Awarded by Alneelain University (2003).
(ماجستير في العلوم الاقتصادية) أثر التمويل علي الإنتاج الزراعي في السودان (2003) . إبراهيم محمد بخيت .
(Master Degree in Economics) The Economic Impacts of Methods of Harvesting on Agricultural Production: Case Study of Gedarif. Tarig El Sir Yousif ELkrail. Awarded by Alneelain University (2003).
(ماجستير في العلوم الاقتصادية) الأثر الاقتصادي لأساليب الحصاد علي الإنتاج الزراعي: دراسة حالة المشاريع الزراعية في القضارف (2003) . طارق السر الكريل .
(Master Degree in Economics) An Econometric Model for the Analysis of Financing in the Bawga Agricultural Project in the Nile State, Northern Sudan. Saad Abdallah Sid Ahmed. Awarded by Alneelain University (2003).
(ماجستير في العلوم الاقتصادية) نموذج قياسي لتحليل أثر التمويل في مشروع الباوجة الزراعي بولاية نهر النيل شمال السودان (2003) . سعد عبد الله سيد أحمد .
(Master Degree in Economics) Analysis of Selected Regions’ Projects and their Impacts on Sustainable Human Development. The Case of Lower Atbara River’s Project. Khalid Alamin Mohamed Salih. Awarded by Alneelain University (2002).
(ماجستير في العلوم الاقتصادية) تحليل لأثر مشاريع المناطق المختارة علي التنمية البشرية المستدامة : دراسة حالة مشاريع أدني نهر عطبرة . خالد الأمين محمد (2002) .
(Master Degree in Economics) Problems of the Industrial Sector of the Sudan. Study Case of the Industrial Area of Omdurman. Saeed Mohamed Ali Basheer. Awarded by Alneelain University (2002).
(ماجستير في العلوم الاقتصادية) تحليل اقتصادي لمشاكل القطاع الصناعي في السودان . دراسة حالة المنطقة الصناعية في أمدرمان . سعيد محمد علي بشير (2002) .
(Master Degree in Economics) An Economic Evaluation of Water Use in Scarcity Regions: Study Case of the Development and Utilization of Water Resources in Southern Darfur, Sudan. Ayat Abobakr Mohamed. Awarded by Alneelain University (2002).
(ماجستير في العلوم الاقتصادية) تقييم اقتصادي لاستخدام المياه في أقاليم الندرة . دراسة حالة تنمية واستغلال مصادر المياه في جنوب دارفور في السودان . آيات أبوبكر محمد (2002) .
(Master Degree in Economics) The Rationale and Alleviations behind the Immigration of University Lecturers of the Sudan. Nagwa Mohamed Alhag Ibrahim. Awarded by Alneelain University (2002).
(ماجستير في العلوم الاقتصادية) تحليل اقتصادي وحلول لأسباب هجرة أساتذة الجامعات السودانية . نجوي محمد الحاج إبراهيم (2002) .
(Master Degree in Economics) An Econometric Model for the Inflation Phenomenon in the Sudan (1990-2000). Yasir Altoum Mohamed. Awarded by Alneelain University (2002).
(ماجستير في العلوم الاقتصادية) نموذج قياسي لظاهرة التضخم في السودان (1990-2000) ياسر التوم محمد (2002) .
(Master Degree in Economics) The Indications and Limitations of the Brain Drain of the Sudan: Study on the Case of the Sudanese University Professors. Nawaal Farrag Altaieb. Awarded by Alneelain University (2002).
(ماجستير في العلوم الاقتصادية) مؤشرات ومحددات نزيف العقول في السودان . دراسة حالة أساتذة الجامعات السودانية . نوال فراج الطيب (2002) .
(Master Degree in Economics) The Arab Food Security under National and International Conditions. Hassan Abdal Azeem Qurashi. Awarded by Alneelain University (2001).
(ماجستير في العلوم الاقتصادية) الأمن الغذائي العربي تحت الظروف القومية والعالمية (2001) . حسن عبد العظيم القرشي .
(Master Degree in Economics) Arab Investment in the Sudan. Case Study of the Arab Fund for Agricultural and Animal Production Projects. Nadia Ali Ahamed. Awarded by Alneelain University (2001).
(ماجستير في العلوم الاقتصادية) تحليل لأثر الاستثمار العربي في السودان : دراسة حالة لمشاريع الشركة العربية للاستثمار الزراعي والحيواني . نادية علي أحمد (2001) .
III. Supervised Master’s Degrees in Statistics
(Master Degree in Statistics) Using Lagged Models in Investment Function of the Sudan: Application of Almon Method on the Period 1980-1999. Thawra Mohamed Eisa Algadal (2008).
تطبيق نماذج الابطاء علي دالة الاستثمار في السودان باستخدام طريقة ألمون في الفترة 1980-1999. ثورة محمد عيسي الجدال (2008) .
(Master Degree in Statistics) The Impacts of Expenditure Rates on Insurance Privileges on the Financial Balance of the National Fund for Social Insurance. Sumaiaa Mahjob Mohamed. Awarded by Alneelain University (2004).
(ماجستير في الإحصاء) أثر معدلات الإنفاق علي المزايا الاجتماعية علي التوازن المالي للصندوق القومي للتأمين الاجتماعي . سمية محجوب محمد (2004) .
(Master Degree in Statistics) Time Series Based Econometric Model for Estimating and Forecasting Electricity Consumption in the Sudan. Amir Hussein Hamad. Awarded by Alneelain University (2003).
(ماجستير في الإحصاء) نموذج قياسي للتقدير والتنبؤ باستهلاك التيار الكهربائي في السودان. أمير حسين حمد (2003) .
(Master Degree in Statistics) Time Series Analysis of the Relationships between Malaria Infections and Some Demographic and Climate in the Sudan. Awatif Mohamed Alnour. Awarded by Alneelain University (2003).
(ماجستير الإحصاء) تحليل السلاسل الزمنية لعلاقة الإصابة بالملاريا مع بعض العوامل المناخية والديموغرافية في السودان . عواطف محمد النور (2003) .
(Master Degree in Statistics) The Application of Time Series Analysis on the Assessment of the Impacts of Exports Livestock on Gross Domestic Production of the Sudan. Haroon Adam Mohamed. Awarded by Alneelain University (2003).
(ماجستير في الإحصاء) استخدام تحليل السلاسل الزمنية في تقدير أثر صادرات اللحوم علي إجمالي الدخل القومي في السودان . هارون آدم محمد (2003) .
(Master Degree in Statistics) The Utilization of Time Series Data in Econometric Models for Estimating Direct Taxation Revenues in the Sudan (1980-2000). Hanan Hassan Saeed Abdalla. Awarded by Alneelain University (2003).
(ماجستير في الإحصاء) تقدير الإيرادات الضريبية المباشرة باستخدام النماذج الاقتصادية القياسية خلال الفترة من (1980-2000م) . حنان حسن سعيد عبد الله .
(Master Degree in Statistics) The Application of Time Series Analysis on the Estimation of the Demand on Electricity in Khartoum State. Ahmed Rifaat Adawi. Awarded by Alneelain University (2003).
(ماجستير في الإحصاء) استخدام السلاسل الزمنية في تقدير الطلب علي الكهرباء في ولاية الخرطوم (2003) أحمد رفعت عدوي .
(Master Degree in Statistics) Statistical Analysis of the Effects Awareness on AIDS’ Incidents in Sudanese Universities. Khalid Abdel Hamed. Awarded by Alneelain University (2003).
(ماجستير في الإحصاء) تحليل إحصائي لأثر الوعي علي حدوث حالات مرض فقد المناعة المكتسبة في الجامعات السودانية . خالد عبد الحميد (2003) .
(Master Degree in Statistics) The Application of Weighted Least Square Models in the Analysis of Socioeconomic Data of Yemeni Students to Estimate Achievement Levels in Sudanese Universities. Fahmi Mohamed Ahmed. Awarded by Alneelain University (2003).
(ماجستير في الإحصاء) استخدام النماذج المرجحة للمربعات الصغرى في تحليل أثر العوامل الاقتصادية والاجتماعية للطلاب اليمنيين علي مستوي أدائهم في الجامعات السودانية (2003) . فهمي محمد أحمد .
(Master Degree in Statistics) Utilizing Time Series Models to Forecast Total Consumption in the Sudan (1960-1998). Amira Ahmed Osman. Awarded by Alneelain University (2002).
استخدام نماذج السلاسل الزمنية في التنبؤ بالاستهلاك الكلي في السودان (1960-1998) أميرة أحمد عثمان (2002) .
(Master Degree in Statistics) Estimating the Domestic Demand of Pharmaceutical Products in the Sudan. Saida Awad Ali. Awarded by Alneelain University (2002).
(ماجستير في الإحصاء) تقدير الطلب المحلي علي المنتجات الصيدلانية في السودان . سيدة عوض علي (2002) .
(Master Degree in Statistics) An Econometric Analysis of the Effects of Crops’ Prices on Cultivated Areas in the Sudan. Manal Mohamed Alzabier Taha. Awarded by Alneelain University (2001).
نموذج قياسي لتحليل أثر أسعار المحاصيل علي المساحات المزروعة في السودان (2001) منال محمد الزبير طه .
Supervised Master’s Degrees in Business Administration
1- (Master Degree in Business Management) The Participation of the Private Sector the in Infrastructure Projects of the Sudan. The Case Study of Sudatel. Omyima Mahgoub Abdel Alraheem. Awarded by Al Azhari University (2002).
(ماجستير إدارة أعمال) أثر مشاركة القطاع الخاص في مشاريع البنية الأساسية في السودان . أميمة محجوب عبد الرحمن (2003) .
Supervised Master’s Degrees in Sociology
(Msc. in Sociology) The Reciprocal Impacts of Economic Development and Social Value on Developing Rural Societies. Case Study of Abidia and El Goul Villages of the Nile State, Sudan. Elias Saied. Awarded by Alneelain University (2003).
التأثير المتبادل بين التنمية الاقتصادية والقيم الاجتماعية علي المجتمعات الريفية النامية . دراسة حالة قريتي العبيدية والجول في ولاية نهر النيل . إلياس سعيد (2003) .
Supervised Doctoral Degrees in Economics
(PhD in Economics) Econometric Analysis for the Impacts of Islamic and Arabic Economic Blocs VS. Globalization and International Trade Agreements. Mohamed Ahmed Osman, al Neelain University (2011).
(PhD in Economics) The Role of Federal Subsidies in Economic Development in the Northern State of Sudan (2000-2007). Osama Muawia Bakheit, University of Dongola (2010).
(PhD in Economics) Analysis of Economic Development Trends in the Republic of Yemen (1995-2005) Abdel Kareem Salih, Al Neelain University (2011).
Economic Analysis of the Sudanese Financial Markets (1980-2009). Al Muaataz Osman Ibrahim, Al Neelain University (2010).
(PhD in Economics) The Role of the Banking Institutions in Savings and Effects on Economic Development in Sudan. Ahmed Mohamed Abdel Rahman. (2009).
(PhD in Economics) The Impact of Foreign Direct Investments on Economic Growth in Sudan (1982-2007) Magdi Alamin Norin Idom, Al Neelain University (2009).
(PhD in Economics) Economic Analysis of the Role of Sudanese Banks in Financing External Trades. Mohamed Ahmed Banaga (2008)
تحليل اقتصادي لدور المصارف السودانية في تمويل التجارة الخارجية . محمد أحمد بانجا (2008) .
(PhD in Economics) The Impacts of Investment in Human Capital on Economic Development in the Sudan. Maimona Abdel Raheem Mohamed. Awarded by the Faculty of Commerce, Social and Economic Studies, Alneelain University (2008).
(PhD in Economics) The Impacts of Globalization on Sudanese Banks Efficiency. Alsidik Yousif Mohamed Musa. Awarded by the Faculty of Commerce, Social and Economic Studies, Alneelain University (2008).
أثر العولمة علي الأداء والكفاءة الاقتصادية في المصارف السودانية . الصديق يوسف محمد موسي (2007) .
(PhD in Economics) The Impacts of Privatization of Public Enterprises on Efficiency. Hassan Mohamed Bashir. Awarded by the Faculty of Commerce, Social and Economic Studies, Alneelain University (2008).
(PhD in Economics) The Impacts of Foreign Investment in the Mining Sector on the Sudanese Economy: Case Study of the Ariab Gold Company. Halima Younis Abbas. Awarded by the Faculty of Commerce, Social and Economic Studies, Alneelain University (2006).
أثر الاستثمار الأجنبي في قطاع التعدين علي الاقتصاد السوداني : دراسة حالة شركة أرياب للذهب . حليمة يونس عباس (2006) .
(PhD in Economics) The Impacts of Cash Outflow from the Banking Sector in the Sudan (1972-2001) Ahmed Suliman Ahmed. Awarded by the Faculty of Commerce, Social and Economic Studies, Alneelain University (2006).
أثر التدفقات النقدية من الجهاز المصرفي علي متغيرات الاقتصاد الكلي (1972-2001) . أحمد سليمان أحمد (2006) .
(PhD in Economics) An Analysis of the Socioeconomic Impacts of Governmental Measures to Minimize Costs of Living for Sudanese Labor-force. Abdel Gadir Saad. Awarded by the Faculty of Commerce, Social and Economic Studies, Alneelain University (2006).
(دكتوراه في الاقتصاد) دراسة تحليلية لأثر السياسات الحكومية علي تخفيف أعباء المعيشة لعمال السودان . عبد القادر سعد (2006) .
(PhD in Economics) A Study of the Conception and Econometric Measurements of Human Development in the Sudan. Rasheeda Mohamed Aldoash. Awarded by the Faculty of Commerce, Social and Economic Studies, Alneelain University (2006).
(دكتوراه في الاقتصاد) دراسة في مفهوم وقياس التنمية البشرية في السودان . رشيدة محمد الدوش (2006) .
(PhD in Economics) The Impacts of the Administrative Structure on the Economic Performance of Sudanese Banks. Abdel Rahman Suliman. Awarded by the Faculty of Commerce, Social and Economic Studies, Alneelain University (2006).
(دكتوراه في الاقتصاد) أثر الهيكل الإداري علي الأداء الاقتصادي للمصارف السودانية . عبد الرحمن سليمان (2006) .
(PhD in Economics) Economics of Water Use in Rural Semi-Arid Regions Environment: A Darfur Case Study. Ayat Abu Bakr Mohamed. Awarded by the Faculty of Commerce, Social and Economic Studies, Alneelain University (2006).
(دكتوراه في الاقتصاد) اقتصاديات استخدام المياه في المناطق الريفية الجافة : دراسة حالة دارفور . آيات أبو بكر محمد (2006) .
(PhD in Economics) An Econometric Analysis of the Impacts of the Formal and Informal Financial Sectors of the Agricultural Productivity in the Sudan. Saad Abdalla Said Ahmed. Awarded by the Faculty of Commerce, Social and Economic Studies, Alneelain University (2006).
تحليل قياسي لأثر التمويل الرسمي وغير الرسمي علي الإنتاج الزراعي في السودان . سعد عبد الله سيد أحمد (2006) .
(PhD in Economics) Child Well-being in Urban Development Context: The Case of Khartoum State, Sudan. Regional Multi Level Policy Oriented Analytical Study. Yasir Awad Elkarim Elmubarak Ali. Awarded by the Faculty of Commerce, Social and Economic Studies, Alneelain University (2005).
(دكتوراه في الاقتصاد) رفاهية الطفل والتنمية الحضرية : دراسة تحليلية متعددة المستويات لولاية الخرطوم . ياسر عبد الكريم مبارك علي (2005) .
(PhD in Economics) The Impacts of Railways Transportation on the Economic Growth of the Sudan. Abdel Rahman Fahmi. Awarded by the Faculty of Commerce, Social and Economic Studies, Alneelain University (2005).
أثر نقل السكك الحديدية علي التنمية الاقتصادية في السودان . عبد الرحمن فهمي (2005) .
(PhD in Economics) Macroeconomic Reforms and Structural Adjustments in the Sudan: An Empirical Analysis (1960-1998). Awad Mohamed Khair. Awarded by the Faculty of Commerce, Social and Economic Studies, Alneelain University (2003).
تحليل لأثر الإصلاح والتكيف علي عوامل الاقتصاد الكلي في السودان (1960-1998) . عوض محمد خير (2003) .
(PhD in Economics) An Economic Analysis of Faba Bean Cultivation and Production in the Sudan. Idris Mohamed Ahmed Hamid. Awarded by the Faculty of Commerce, Social and Economic Studies, Alneelain University (2005).
(PhD in Economics) The Impact of Economic Cycle Magnitude on Income and Employment in the Sudan (1970-2000). Yassin Ibrahim El Tahir. Awarded by the Faculty of Commerce, Social and Economic Studies, Alneelain University (2004).
أثر الدورات الاقتصادية علي الدخل ومعدلات العمالة في السودان . ياسين إبراهيم الطاهر (2004) .
(PhD in Economics) An Econometric Analysis of the Impact of Foreign Capital Inflows and Economic Development in the Sudan. Adam Ahmed Sabeel. Awarded by the Faculty of Commerce, Social and Economic Studies, Alneelain University (2001).
تحليل قياسي لأثر تدفقات رؤوس الأموال الأجنبية علي التنمية الاقتصادية في السودان . آدم أحمد سبيل (2002) .
(PhD in Economics) An analysis of the Labor Unions with Special Reference on the Experience of Sudanese Labor force (1992-1999). Abdel Gadir Ahmed Saeed. Awarded by the Faculty of Commerce, Social and Economic Studies, Alneelain University (2003).
Supervised Doctoral Degrees in Statistics
1. (PhD in Statistics) The Application of System Dynamics Modeling on Macroeconomic Factors of the Yemeni Economy. Fahmi Mohamed Ali. Awarded by the Faculty of Mathemtics Technology, Alneelain University (2008).
(دكتوراه في الإحصاء) استخدام نماذج النظم الديناميكية في تحليل متغيرات الاقتصاد الكلي لليمن . فهمي محمد علي (2008) .
2. (PhD in Statistics) Application of the Bayesian Models in Analyzing Child Labor in Yemen. Ismael Mohamed Ahmed. Awarded by the Faculty of Mathematics Technology, Alneelain University (2008).
(دكتوراه في الإحصاء) تطبيق النماذج البايزية في تحليل ظاهرة عمالة الأطفال في اليمن . اسماعيل محمد أحمد (2008) .
3. (PhD in Statistics) The Application of Non-linear Models in the Estimation of the Function of the Sudanese Economy by Utilizing the Principle Components Analysis. Hamza Ibrahim Hamza. Awarded by the Faculty of Science, Sudan University for Technology (2005).
(دكتوراه في الإحصاء) تطبيق النماذج اللاخطية في تقدير دالة الاقتصاد القومي السوداني باستخدام تحليل العوامل الرئيسية . حمزة إبراهيم حمزة (2006) .
4. (PhD Statistics) An Appraisal of the Education Statistical System of the Sudan. Abbas Ali Aamir. Awarded by the Faculty of Mathematics Technology, Alneelain University (2004).
(دكتوراه في الإحصاء) تحليل للنظم الإحصائية لبيانات التعليم في السودان عباس علي عامر (2004) .
Supervised Doctoral Degrees in Agricultural Economics
(PhD in Agricultural Economics and Development) The Impacts of Water Borne Diseases on Economic Activities and Development: Study of the Gezira Scheme of Sudan. Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Alneelain University (2008).
2- (PhD in Agricultural Economics and Development) An Analysis of Vegetable and Fruits Marketing in the Sudan: Field Survey of Greater Khartoum Major Markets. Howida Hassan Alshafie. Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Alneelain University (2008).
Supervised Master Degrees in Agricultural Economics
(Msc. Regional Planning and Development) The Impacts of Regional Planning on Agricultural and Industrial Development: Case Study of the Western Jamahiria Arabia Allibyia. Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Alneelain University (2008).
Supervised Master Degrees in Disaster Management and Refugees Studies
The Impacts of the Social Structure on the Transformation of the Sudanese Civil Societal Institutions: Case Study of Khartoum State. Abdallah Mohamed Suliman (2008).
Supervised PhD Degrees in Disaster Management and Refugees Studies
(PhD, Disaster Management and Refugees Studies: Conflict Resolution) The Impacts of the Social Structure on the Transformation of the Sudanese Civil Societal Institutions: Case Study of Khartoum State. Abdallah Mohamed Suliman. (2011).
(PhD, Disaster Management and Refugees Studies: Conflict Resolution)
Professional Memberships
Member of the Japanese Association for Agricultural Economics since 1990.
Member of the Japan Academy of Economic Sciences: since 1992.
عضو في الأكاديمية اليابانية للعلوم الاقتصادية منذ العام 1992
Member of the Kansai Economists’ Society since 1992.
عضو في جمعية كانساي للاقتصاديين – اليابان منذ العام 1992 .
Member of the Nile-Ethiopian Society of Japan: since 1993.
عضو في الجمعية العلمية للنيل الإثيوبي في اليابان منذ العام 1993 .
Member of the Chubu Association for Agricultural Economics: since 1991.
The Japanese Society of Crop Science since 1994.
Languages
Arabic (Mother Language).
English, fluently writing, reading, hearing and speaking.
French, moderately speaking and hearing. Easily reading and writing.
Japanese, fluently speaking and hearing. Moderately reading and writing.
Major Attended Conferences & Contributions
The 2nd Nilo-Ethiopian Conference. October-Nagoya, Japan. (1993) Contributed paper: Comprehensive Sustainable Development Strategies of Marginal Regions: the Integration of Proximate Rainfed Lands and Riverain Agricultural Development in the Sudan.
The XXI IAAE, International Association of Agricultural Economists Conference. Tokyo, August (1991) Contributed Paper: Changes of Agricultural Structure in the Sahel and its Implications of Drought and Famine.
Community and Volunteer Activities
Co-founder of the Japan-Sudan Society, which is concerned about aiding refugees in Sudan. Mail Address: 3-7-20-703, AOI, Higashiku, Nagoya 461, JAPAN.
Co-founder of the Sennar-Sudan Society (SSS), a foundation mainly concerned for the: Actively contributing in the rehabilitation of patients of visual disabilities in poor urban camps around Khartoum and the education of the visually impaired. Mail Address: 1709 Ebiyama-Cho, Tenpaku-Ku, Nagoya-Japan.
A volunteer coordinator for the International Club of the Blind (ICB) located at Tokyo-Japan mainly engaged in nominating blind Sudanese students for scholarships in Japan. In addition, I am teaching Japanese language to young Sudanese Visually Impaired students preparing them to study at Japan. Mail Address of the society: 20-18 HASUNUMA-Cho, ITABASHI-ku, Tokyo, JAPAN.
An active member of the Trustees’ Board of El Nur Institute (School of the Visually Impaired Students) and active financial supporter to the institute. The address of the Institute: Khartoum Bahari, Khartoum-SUDAN.
Co-founder of the Japanese-Sudanese Society of Hitotsubo (A Drop of Hope) for supporting the visually impaired and refugees.
Director and Chief Trustee of the Ghufran Volunteer Organization residing at Sudan and working in refugees aid and assistance of the grassroots.
مدير جمعية الغفران الطوعية المؤسسة والعاملة في غوث اللاجئين والإمدادات الغذائية لمنكوبي الحروب الأهلية في السودان .
Major Official Functions
Economic Advisor, Council of Ministers-Government of the Sudan.
مستشار في رئاسة مجلس الوزراء : الدائرة الاقتصادية .
Member in the Economic Council of the Center for Future Studies.
عضو ومستشار في الدائرة الاقتصادية : مركز دراسات المستقبل (رئاسة الجمهورية) .
Member of the High Technical Economic Committee of the Ministers Council of the Sudanese Government (HTEC).
عضو في اللجنة الفنية الاقتصادية العليا لمجلس الوزراء ، حكومة السودان .
Member of the High Technical Exhibition Committee for Re-establishing the Sudan International Exhibitions' Agency of the Ministers Council of the Sudanese Government (HTEC).
عضو في اللجنة الفنية المشكلة لتأسيس وكالة المعارض الدولية السودانية المشكلة من مجلس الوزراء ، حكومة السودان .
Member of the Special Integral Wealth Distribution Economic Committee of the Council of Ministers of the Government of the Sudan.
عضو في اللجنة العليا الاقتصادية الخاصة بعدالة توزيع الثروة لمجلس الوزراء ، حكومة السودان .
Member of the Special Committee for Developing the Tourism Sector of the Sudan of the Council of Ministers of the Government of the Sudan.
عضو في لجنة تطوير قطاع السياحة في السودان المشكلة بقرار مجلس الوزراء ، حكومة السودان .
Member of the Special National Task Force for National Information and Indices of the Council of Ministers of the Government of the Sudan.
عضو فريق العمل الوطني للمعلومات القومية والمؤشرات المشكل بقرار مجلس الوزراء حكومة السودان .
Member of the Special National Task Force for National Information Assessment and Evaluation of the Council of Ministers of the Government of the Sudan.
عضو فريق العمل الوطني لتقويم وقياس المعلومات القومية المشكل بقرار مجلس الوزراء حكومة السودان .
عضو الأمانة العامة للمجلس القومي للتخطيط الاستراتيجي (وزارة مجلس الوزراء) لجنة القطاع الاقتصادي .
Member of the General Secretariat for Strategic Planning (Ministry of the Council Ministers) Committee for the Economic Sector.
References
Professor Ibrahim Al Amin Hajer, Faculty of Science, Alneelain Univesity.
Professor Yoji TAKEOKA, Graduate School for Bio-agricultural Sciences. CHIKUSA, 461-01: Nagoya University, Nagoya-Japan.
Professor Shin-ei KASUGAI, Faculty of Commerce and Economics. Tokai University, Aichi Ken-Japan.

Positions

Present Professor of Economics, Al-Neelain University
to

Curriculum Vitae



Research Interests

Economics, Economic Information Systems, Econometrics, Economic Strategic Planning, Water Economics, and Political Economy



Contact Information

226 Garden City, Burry, Khartoum, Sudan
P.O. Box 12910-11111

Email:


Challenges of Social Security Systems in Sudan (4)

Social Science (2)

The Impacts of Social Justice and Income Distribution in Sudan (35)