The data from a longitudinal study which was conducted in 1982 and 1993 in Australia showed that strategic planning systems played an integral part in the strategic management efforts of large manufacturing companies. However, strategic planning has undergone substantial changes since the early 1980s: companies improved the flexibility of their planning systems, they decentralized strategic planning to divisions or business units, they moved the planning responsibility from staff personnel to line managers and they changed the role of corporate planning departments. In addition, companies tried to shape their organizational culture and placed greater emphasis on customer orientation and on total quality management. They increased their international activities and used acquisitions and divestitures to focus on core business activities.
Available at: http://works.bepress.com/ingrid_bonn/4/