β-Carotene has shown cancer-preventive effects in preclinical studies while increasing lung cancer mortality in clinical trials. We have shown that β-carotene stimulates cAMP signalling in vitro. Here, we have tested the hypothesis that β-carotene promotes the development of pulmonary adenocarcinoma (PAC) in vivo via cAMP signalling.
PAC was induced in hamsters with the carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), followed by β-carotene for 1.5 years. Incidence, multiplicity and size of lung tumours were recorded, and phosphorylated CREB and ERK1/2 in tumour cells were determined by Western blots. Cyclic AMP in blood cells was analysed by immunoassays, retinoids in serum and lungs by HPLC.
β-Carotene increased lung tumour multiplicity, lung tumour size, blood cell cAMP, serum and lung levels of retinoids and induced p-CREB and p-ERK1/2 in lung tumours.
Our data suggest that β-carotene promotes the development of PAC via increased cAMP signalling.
- lung adenocarcinoma,
- tumour promotion,
- cAMP signalling
Available at: http://works.bepress.com/hussein_al-wadei/6/