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ß-carotene promotes the development of NNK-induced small airway-derived lung adenocarcinoma
European Journal of Cancer (2009)
  • Hussein Abdulhadi Nasser Al-Wadei, University of Tennessee, Knoxville
  • Hildegard M Schuller, University of Tennessee - Knoxville


β-Carotene has shown cancer-preventive effects in preclinical studies while increasing lung cancer mortality in clinical trials. We have shown that β-carotene stimulates cAMP signalling in vitro. Here, we have tested the hypothesis that β-carotene promotes the development of pulmonary adenocarcinoma (PAC) in vivo via cAMP signalling.


PAC was induced in hamsters with the carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), followed by β-carotene for 1.5 years. Incidence, multiplicity and size of lung tumours were recorded, and phosphorylated CREB and ERK1/2 in tumour cells were determined by Western blots. Cyclic AMP in blood cells was analysed by immunoassays, retinoids in serum and lungs by HPLC.


β-Carotene increased lung tumour multiplicity, lung tumour size, blood cell cAMP, serum and lung levels of retinoids and induced p-CREB and p-ERK1/2 in lung tumours.


Our data suggest that β-carotene promotes the development of PAC via increased cAMP signalling.

  • B-Carotene,
  • lung adenocarcinoma,
  • tumour promotion,
  • cAMP signalling
Publication Date
Citation Information
Hussein Abdulhadi Nasser Al-Wadei and Hildegard M Schuller. "ß-carotene promotes the development of NNK-induced small airway-derived lung adenocarcinoma" European Journal of Cancer Vol. 45 Iss. 7 (2009)
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