The paper suggests two corrections in the measure of Gender Development Index (GDI). On the one hand, it proposes to correct for skewed sex-ratio. This in most cases translates into correcting for missing women, but in some cases it also corrects for missing men because of war, migration or other reasons – of course, both the anomalies can have adverse implications for females. On the other hand, it suggests measuring attainment as the inverse of the distance from the ideal, which corrects for the non-uniformity of development across the three dimensions of health, education and income. An empirical illustration is provided using data for 2006. The combined impact of the two penalties can be decomposed into the sex-ratio effect, non-uniformity effect and the intersection effect.
- Displaced ideal,
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