All types of roads, including those with asphalt pavements, steadily deteriorate over time because of repeated mechanical (traffic) and climatic loadings. Pavement preservation consists of applying a suitable treatment on deteriorated roads to maintain good conditions and extend their service lives (1, 2). Fog seal is a low-cost application of liquid asphalt or emulsion derived from petroleum or coal tar to slow down microcracking propagation, prevent oxidation, and seal against water infiltration. The conventional fog sealants need heating before spraying on the pavement surface, and the recommended spray temperature should be between 52°C and 71°C (125°F and 160°F). Although such petroleum-based traditional fog sealers have been successfully used to maintain road surfaces for many years, they not only need a long curing time, which results in delayed traffic opening, but they can also cause health issues from chemical components such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (3, 4). Furthermore, the use of fossil fuel-based products increases the risks associated with an energy crisis and environmental contamination (5, 6).
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