Universities are regarded as fundamental factors to the achievement of many national and international priorities. Universities are the only places where the ideas and rationales are brought together, and which make them the strongest providers of the rational explanation and meaning that societies need. Investments in the universities are increasingly based upon the belief that the science labs in research-intensive universities can be the source of a continuous stream of people and ideas that will spawn innovative and fast growing companies to form a knowledge-based economy. In teaching, universities shape new people, and in research, they create new possibilities. The university graduates learn to seek the true meaning of phenomena, to distinguish between the true and the merely seemingly true, to verify for themselves what is stable in that very unstable compound that often passes for knowledge. The challenge to both the governments and the university administrators is to permit autonomy without oppressive accountability, and to give staff and students the freedom to think, speculate and research. These are the very conditions of the personal and collective creativity that are the sources of a university’s deepest benefits to its society.
- High-stakes Test,
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