Humic acid (HA) extracted from fermentation of EFB using Trichoderma viride was characterized by using three methods: i) elemental analysis performed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) with integrated Energy Disperse Spectroscopy (EDS) detector and element-analyzer, ii)fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and iii) solid state cross polarization magic angle spinning carbon 13-nuclear magnetic resonance (CP/MAS 13C NMR) spectroscopy. The elemental composition and functional groups of the HA extracted from EFB resembled those reported for HA of peat and incompletely humified materials. The CP/MAS 13C NMR data correlated with results obtained by FTIR spectroscopy, both indicating that the HA were composed of partially degraded constituents of plant tissue, which still retain their chemical structures. The major plant components identified in the HA were lignin, carbohydrates and long-chain aliphatic structural groups.
- humic acid,
- Trichoderma viride,
- fourier transform infrared and nuclear magnetic
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