Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is characterized by macrophage and neutrophil leukocyte recruitment and activation in the liver. Damage- and pathogen-associated molecular patterns contribute to a self-perpetuating proinflammatory state in ALD. Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 1 (TREM-1) is a surface receptor that amplifies inflammation induced by toll-like receptors (TLRs) and is expressed on neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages. We hypothesized that TREM-1 signaling contributes to proinflammatory pathway activation in ALD. Using an in vivo ALD model in mice, we tested the effects of ligand-independent TREM-1 inhibitory peptides that were formulated into human high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-mimicking complexes GF9-HDL and GA/E31-HDL. As revealed in vitro, macrophages endocytosed these rationally designed complexes through scavenger receptors. A 5-week alcohol feeding with the Lieber-DeCarli diet in mice resulted in increased serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), liver steatosis, and increased proinflammatory cytokines in the liver. TREM-1 messenger RNA (mRNA) expression was significantly increased in alcohol-fed mice, and TREM-1 inhibitors significantly reduced this increase. TREM-1 inhibition significantly attenuated alcohol-induced spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) activation, an early event in both TLR4 and TREM-1 signaling. The TREM-1 inhibitors significantly inhibited macrophage (epidermal growth factor-like module-containing mucin-like hormone receptor-like 1 [F4/80], clusters of differentiation [CD]68) and neutrophil (lymphocyte antigen 6 complex, locus G [Ly6G] and myeloperoxidase [MPO]) markers and proinflammatory cytokines (monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 [MCP-1], tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-alpha], interleukin-1beta [IL-1beta], macrophage inflammatory protein 1alpha [MIP-1alpha]) at the mRNA level compared to the HDL vehicle. Administration of TREM-1 inhibitors ameliorated liver steatosis and early fibrosis markers (alpha-smooth muscle actin [alphaSMA] and procollagen1alpha [Pro-Col1alpha]) at the mRNA level in alcohol-fed mice. However, the HDL vehicle also reduced serum ALT and some cytokine protein levels in alcohol-fed mice, indicating HDL-related effects. Conclusion: HDL-delivered novel TREM-1 peptide inhibitors ameliorate early phases of inflammation and neutrophil and macrophage recruitment and activation in the liver and attenuate hepatocyte damage and liver steatosis. TREM-1 inhibition represents a promising therapeutic approach for further investigations in ALD.
- alcoholic liver disease
Hepatol Commun. 2018 Oct 29;3(1):99-115. doi: 10.1002/hep4.1269. eCollection 2019 Jan. Link to article on publisher's site
Available at: http://works.bepress.com/gyongyi_szabo/227/