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A Cross-Sectional Study of Growth and Metabolic Bone Disease in a Pediatric Global Cohort Undergoing Chronic Hemodialysis.
The Journal of Pediatrics
  • Rasha Hussein
  • Ana Catalina Alvarez-Elías
  • Alice Topping
  • Jochen G Raimann
  • Guido Filler, Western University
  • Dalia Yousif
  • Peter Kotanko
  • Len A Usvyat
  • Mara Medeiros
  • Roberto Pecoits-Filho
  • Bernard Canaud
  • Stefano Stuard
  • Xu Xiaoqi
  • Michael Etter
  • Maria E Díaz-González de Ferris
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We sought to assess worldwide differences among pediatric patients undergoing hemodialysis. Because practices differ widely regarding nutritional resources, treatment practice, and access to renal replacement therapy, investigators from the Pediatric Investigation and Close Collaboration to examine Ongoing Life Outcomes, the pediatric subset of the MONitoring Dialysis Outcomes Cohort (PICCOLO MONDO) performed this cross-sectional study. We hypothesized that growth would be better in developed countries, possibly at the expense of bone mineral disease.

Study Design

In this cross-sectional study, we analyzed growth by height z score and recommended age-specific bone mineral metabolism markers from 225 patientshemodialysis, between the years of 2000 to 2012 from 21 countries in different regions.


The patients' median age was 16 (IQR 14-17) years, and 45% were females. A height z score less than the third percentile was noted in 34% of the cohort, whereas >66% of patients reported normal heights, with patients from North America having the greatest proportion (>80%). More than 70% of the entire cohort had greater than the age-recommended levels of phosphorus, particularly in the Asia-Pacific and North America, where we also observed the greatest body mass index z score (0.99 ± 1.6) and parathyroid hormone levels (557.1 [268.4-740.5]). Below-recommended parathyroid hormone levels were noted in 26% and elevated levels in 61% of the entire sample, particularly in the Asia Pacific region. Lower-than-recommended calcium levels were noted in 36% of the entire cohort, particularly in Latin America.


We found regional differences in growth- and age-adjusted bone mineral metabolism markers. Children from North America had the best growth, received the most dialysis, but also had the worst phosphate control and body mass index z scores.


Article available at The Journal of Pediatrics

Citation Information
Rasha Hussein, Ana Catalina Alvarez-Elías, Alice Topping, Jochen G Raimann, et al.. "A Cross-Sectional Study of Growth and Metabolic Bone Disease in a Pediatric Global Cohort Undergoing Chronic Hemodialysis." The Journal of Pediatrics Vol. 202 (2018) p. 171 - 178
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