Skip to main content
Effects of fertilizers on virulence of Steinernema carpocapsae
Applied Soil Ecology
  • David I. Shapiro, Iowa State University
  • Gregory L. Tylka, Iowa State University
  • Leslie C. Lewis, United States Department of Agriculture
Document Type
Publication Version
Published Version
Publication Date
The effects of three fertilizers (fresh cow manure, composted manure, and urea) were determined on the virulence of Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser) against the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella (L.). Nitrogen levels were standardized among fertilizer treatments at two levels (280 and 560 kg ha−1). Urea and fresh manure decreased nematode virulence in laboratory experiments. In field experiments, however, only the fresh manure treatment reduced nematode virulence. In both laboratory and field experiments, composted manure did not affect nematode virulence. Fertilizer effects on virulence of S. carpocapsae were more rapid in a soil with reduced organic matter than in a soil with higher levels of organic matter. Factors causing reduced nematode virulence are discussed.

This article is published as Shapiro, David I., Gregory L. Tylka, and Leslie C. Lewis. "Effects of fertilizers on virulence of Steinernema carpocapsae." Applied Soil Ecology 3, no. 1 (1996): 27-34, doi: 10.1016/0929-1393(95)00069-0.

Works produced by employees of the U.S. Government as part of their official duties are not copyrighted within the U.S. The content of this document is not copyrighted.
File Format
Citation Information
David I. Shapiro, Gregory L. Tylka and Leslie C. Lewis. "Effects of fertilizers on virulence of Steinernema carpocapsae" Applied Soil Ecology Vol. 3 Iss. 1 (1996) p. 27 - 34
Available at: