The bioconversion of lignocellulosic materials into fuels is of great environmental and economic importance, because of the large amounts of feedstock (est. over 1 billion tons per year), the potentially low cost of this feedstock, and the potentially high net energy balance the overall process. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a candidate dedicated lignocellulosic feedstock in the US. However, lignocellulosic materials, including switchgrass, are hampered by the recalcitrance of lignocellulose to enzymatic degradation into fermentable sugars. Various types of pretreatment have been developed to overcome this recalcitrance. In this study, we examined sequential ammonia-steeping and ultrasound pretreatment of switchgrass. The experimental variables included ultrasound energy dissipation and source amplitude, biomass concentrations, and antibacterial agents. Specifically, the 35-mL samples received either 2000 J or 5000 J, while biomass concentration was at 10% and 30% (mass basis). Antibacterial agents were employed to determine the extent to which sugars were being metabolized by naturally occurring bacteria in the unsterilized pretreated samples. Analytical glucose analysis was conducted to verify the amount of fermentable sugars released and low-vacuum SEM was used to establish the physical effect of ultrasonics on the biomass. The sequential ammonia steeping-ultrasonic pretreatment released about 10% more fermentable sugars than did ammonia steeping alone. However, the net energy balance (additional chemical in free sugars minus energy consumption of ultrasound process) was not favorable - this contrasts with Grewell's work using ultrasonics for enhancing sugar release from starches. We recommend further investigations on re-evaluating the design and conditions which could make ultrasonic work better as a lignocellulosic pretreatment.
Available at: http://works.bepress.com/gowrishankar_srinivasan/2/