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Contracts as Organizations
Arizona Law Review
  • D. Gordon Smith
  • Brayden G. King, Northwestern University
Publication Date
  • contracts,
  • organizations,
  • empirical,
  • economics,
  • law
Document Type

Empirical studies of contracts have become more common over the past decade, but the range of questions addressed by these studies is narrow, inspired primarily by economic theories that focus on the role of contracts in mitigating ex post opportunism. We contend that these economic theories do not adequately explain many commonly observed features of contracts, and we offer four organizational theories to supplement-and in some instances, perhaps, challenge-the dominant economic accounts. The purpose of this Article is threefold: first, to describe how theoretical perspectives on contracting have motivated empirical work on contracts; second, to highlight the dominant role of economic theories in framing empirical work on contracts; and third, to enrich the empirical study of contracts through application of four organizational theories: resource theory, learning theory, identity theory, and institutional theory. Outside economics literature, empirical studies of contracts are rare. Even management scholars and sociologists who generate organizational theories largely ignore contracts. Nevertheless, we assert that these organizational theories provide new lenses through which to view contracts and help us understand their multiple purposes.

General Notes
(Published with commentary by Robert P. Bartlett, III and Anna Gelpern.)
Citation Information
D. Gordon Smith & Brayden G. King, 𝘊𝘰𝘯𝘡𝘳𝘒𝘀𝘡𝘴 𝘒𝘴 π˜–π˜³π˜¨π˜’π˜―π˜ͺ𝘻𝘒𝘡π˜ͺ𝘰𝘯𝘴, 51 AΚ€Ιͺα΄’. L. Rᴇᴠ. 1 (2009).