Gd oxidizes preferentially at the (0 1 0) surface of Gd5Ge4. This is consistent with thermodynamic data for the bulk oxides. Upon oxidation in vacuum, the gadolinium oxide displaces or covers the Ge. Oxidation is more extensive at 600 K than at 300 K, because more oxygen is incorporated into the surface and the shift of the Gd binding energy is larger.
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