Skip to main content
Forms of Early Walking
Journal of Theoretical Biology (1995)
  • Gin McCollum, Portland State University
  • Clay Holroyd
  • Ann M Castelfranco

Children in the first weeks of independent locomotion display a wide variety of walking forms. The walking forms differ in mechanical strategy and concern with balance. Three extreme walking forms are presented: the Twister, who uses trunk twist, the Faller, who uses gravity, and the Stepper, who remains balanced as much as possible. Each walking form is presented as a "d-space", a mathematical format combining continuous and discrete aspects, developed to express the sequence and pattern of a movement without the inappropriate precision of a physical trajectory. The three d-spaces represent analyses of three extreme modes of early walking. They are used to generate the variety of early walking forms and to predict mixtures of mechanical strategies as children mature and converge to more similar walking forms over the first few months of independent locomotion.

Publication Date
Citation Information
Gin McCollum, Clay Holroyd and Ann M Castelfranco. "Forms of Early Walking" Journal of Theoretical Biology Vol. 176 (1995)
Available at: