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Threshold Concentrations of an Anthraquinone-Based Repellent for Canada Geese, Red-Winged Blackbirds, and Ring-Necked Pheasants
USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications
  • Scott J. Werner, United States Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health, Inspection Service, Wildlife Services, National Wildlife Research Center, 4101 LaPorte Avenue, Fort Collins, CO 80521-2154, USA
  • James C. Carlson, United States Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health, Inspection Service, Wildlife Services, National Wildlife Research Center, 4101 LaPorte Avenue, Fort Collins, CO 80521-2154, USA
  • Shelagh K. Tupper, United States Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health, Inspection Service, Wildlife Services, National Wildlife Research Center, 4101 LaPorte Avenue, Fort Collins, CO 80521-2154, USA
  • Michele M. Santer, Arkion Life Sciences, 551 Mews Drive-Suite J, New Castle, DE 19720, USA
  • George M. Linz, United States Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health, Inspection Service, Wildlife Services, National Wildlife Research Center, North Dakota Field Station
Date of this Version
1-1-2009
Comments
Published in Applied Animal Behaviour Science 121 (2009) 190–196.
Abstract
Wildlife repellents provide a non-lethal alternative for managing the monetary impacts of agricultural depredation. For the purpose of developing of an effective avian repellent, we established repellency thresholds of an anthraquinone-based repellent for Canada geese (Branta canadensis), red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus), and ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) in captivity. We conducted a concentration–response experiment with Canada geese offered cornseeds treated with six concentrations of Avipel repellent (a.i. 50% 9,10-anthraquinone). Based upon our laboratory efficacy data, we used non-linear regression to predict a threshold concentration of 1450 ppm anthraquinone for geese offered treated corn seeds (i.e., 80% repellency; r2 = 0.85, P = 0.009). We also observed a positive concentration–response relationship among red-winged blackbirds offered Avipel-treated rice (r2 = 0.70, P = 0.039) and sunflower seeds (r2 = 0.84, P = 0.010). We predicted a threshold concentration of 1475 ppm anthraquinone for blackbirds offered treated sunflower seeds. Blackbirds also reliably discriminated between untreated food and rice treated with 2325 ppm anthraquinone (F1,10 = 3414.05, P< 0.0001) or sunflower treated with 1778 ppm anthraquinone (F1,10 = 175.39, P< 0.0001). We observed a positive concentration–response relationship among ring-necked pheasants offered corn (r2 = 0.95, P = 0.001) and sunflower seeds (r2 = 0.99, P< 0.001) treated with Avipel. We predicted a threshold concentration of 10,450 ppm anthraquinone for pheasants offered treated corn seeds. Pheasants also reliably discriminated between untreated food and corn treated with 1900 ppm anthraquinone (F1,10 = 919.86, P < 0.0001) or hulled sunflower treated with 1140 ppm anthraquinone (F1,10 = 177.35, P< 0.0001). Avipel seed treatments effectively conditioned avoidance of treated seeds among Canada geese, red-winged blackbirds, and ring-necked pheasants. Our laboratory efficacy data provide a reliable basis for planning future field applications of anthraquinone-based bird repellents for protection of agricultural crops, property, and related natural resources. Supplemental field efficacy studies are necessary for registration of anthraquinone-based repellents for managing agricultural depredation caused by wild birds.
Citation Information
Scott J. Werner, James C. Carlson, Shelagh K. Tupper, Michele M. Santer, et al.. "Threshold Concentrations of an Anthraquinone-Based Repellent for Canada Geese, Red-Winged Blackbirds, and Ring-Necked Pheasants" (2009)
Available at: http://works.bepress.com/george_m_linz/65/