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Article
Echinacea Species and Alkamides Inhibit Prostaglandin E2 Production in RAW264.7 Mouse Macrophage Cells
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
  • Carlie A. LaLone, Iowa State University
  • Kimberly D.P. Hammer, Iowa State University
  • Lankun Wu, Iowa State University
  • Jaehood Bae, Iowa State University
  • Norma Leyva, Iowa State University
  • Yi Liu, Iowa State University
  • Avery K.S. Solco, Iowa State University
  • George A. Kraus, Iowa State University
  • Patricia A. Murphy, Iowa State University
  • Eve S. Wurtele, Iowa State University
  • Ok-Kyung Kim, Iowa State University
  • Kwon II Seo, Iowa State University
  • Mark P. Widrlechner, Iowa State University
  • Diane F. Birt, Iowa State University
Document Type
Article
Publication Date
1-1-2007
DOI
10.1021/jf063711a
Abstract

Inhibition of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 mouse macrophage cells was assessed with an enzyme immunoassay following treatments with Echinacea extracts or synthesized alkamides. Results indicated that ethanol extracts diluted in media to a concentration of 15 μg/mL from E. angustifolia, E. pallida, E. simulata, and E. sanguinea significantly inhibited PGE2 production. In further studies, PGE2 production was significantly reduced by all synthesized alkamides assayed at 50 μM, by Bauer alkamides 8, 12A analogue, and 14, Chen alkamide 2, and Chen alkamide 2 analogue at 25 μM and by Bauer alkamide 14 at 10 μM. Cytotoxicity did not play a role in the noted reduction of PGE2production in either the Echinacea extracts or synthesized alkamides. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis identified individual alkamides present at concentrations below 2.8 μM in the extracts from the six Echinacea species (15 μg/mL crude extract). Because active extracts contained 2, it is likely that alkamides may contribute toward the anti-inflammatory activity of Echinacea in a synergistic or additive manner.

Comments

Posted with permission from Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 55, no. 18 (2007): 7314–7322, doi:10.1021/jf063711a. Copyright 2007 American Chemical Society.

Copyright Owner
American Chemical Society
Language
en
Date Available
January 15, 2013
File Format
application/pdf
Citation Information
Carlie A. LaLone, Kimberly D.P. Hammer, Lankun Wu, Jaehood Bae, et al.. "Echinacea Species and Alkamides Inhibit Prostaglandin E2 Production in RAW264.7 Mouse Macrophage Cells" Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry Vol. 55 Iss. 18 (2007) p. 7314 - 7322
Available at: http://works.bepress.com/george_kraus/5/