Conditions influencing bioluminescence output from Pseudomonas putida TVA8 harboring chromosomal tod-luxCDABE fusion were followed. In complex media, cell growth was not influenced by the presence of toluene at 53 mg/L. Bioluminescence induction was tested in minimal medium. At 15 °C the highest bioluminescence induced with toluene (1.325 mg/L) was reached after 6 h. At 25 °C the bioluminescence maximum was approximately 20% lower but this was reached after 3.5 h, and at temperatures of 7 °C, 28 °C, 30 °C and 34 °C, bioluminescence peaked at ≤60% of the maximum. Time courses of bioluminescence were dependent on cell concentrations. The heights of bioluminescence maxima were proportional to toluene concentration in the range 0–26 mg/L. Twenty-three organic pollutants (103× diluted saturated solutions) were tested as bioluminescent inducers. The bioluminescence maximum decreased in the order: ethylbenzene > toluene > phenol > benzene > 4-ethyltoluene > 4-fluorotoluene > cumene > isobutylbenzene > styrene > trichloroethylene > o-, p-xylene > cresol > m-xylene > 2-methylnaphthalene > benzylchloride > naphthalene > salicylic acid > hexachlorobenzene > 2-chloronaphthalene > biphenyl > 2-bromonaphthalene > 1,3,5-triethylbenzene. Bioluminescence was also induced with ethanol and methanol and the presence of these alcohols in concentrations of ≤1% increased bioluminescence of toluene. The induction of bioluminescence from samples of wastewater and groundwater contaminated with BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene) from 0.5 to 120 mg/L was demonstrated.
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