Several recent studies have made substantive claims about the effects of school-SES on student achievement. This article argues that school-SES effects are an artifact due to the very high correlation at the aggregate school-level between SES and student achievement. School-SES effects are strong because they are proxies for school-prior achievement. Theoretical processes are offered to explain the effects of school-level prior achievement.
Available at: http://works.bepress.com/gary_marks/92/