The description in the literature of effective academic leaders is that these leaders are trustworthy, have a clear vision of their school's future, and are able to inspire a shared vision among divergent individuals and groups (Bennis and Norris, 1985). According to Dibden (1968), academic deans are concerned with the effective functioning of an educational unit, promoting scholarship among faculty, facilitating the development of academic programs that expand the intellect of students, and managing the academic budget. A prime assumption of this brief study is, arguably, as the chief administrative officer in an academic program, the dean is essential to organizational vitality, integrity, and growth. It is the dean, in this role, who provides the leadership, resources, and incentives to enable faculty to carry out the mission of the college. Ostensibly, in fulfilling this role, academic leaders experience advantages and disadvantages, costs and rewards. This study will endeavor to address the issue that there is much disagreement about definitions of leadership and about its substantive nature. As Spotts (1974) observed: "The general conclusion that one might draw is that there is very little consensus about what leadership is or what is should be." This observation was confirmed by Stogdill (1974) when he stated: "There are almost as many different definitions of leadership as there are persons who have attempted to define the concept." Not only are there disagreements about how leadership is defined, others question whether leadership makes a difference in outcomes. March (1982) challenges the belief in the efficacy of leadership as well as the reliability of leaders success.
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