A 3-year-old sexually intact male Dutch rabbit was evaluated for nasal discharge and head tilt of 1 week's duration. The rabbit had been laterally recumbent for the 5 hours prior to admission. Upon physical examination, there was mucopurulent discharge from both nares and large amounts of desiccated and liquid caseous debris in the left ear. Results of a CBC revealed leukocytosis (18,100 cells/μL; reference range, 5,200 to 12,500 cells/μL); results of serum biochemical analysis were within reference ranges. The rabbit was anesthetized, and radiographs of the skull were obtained. Clinical signs were suggestive of a Pasteurella multocida infection of the upper respiratory tract and middle and inner ear. Other differential diagnoses for the head tilt include other bacterial infections, parasitic infections, inflammation of the middle or inner ear, foreign body, trauma, cerebrovascular accident, toxicoses, heat stress, liver disease, and neoplasia. In addition to imaging of the skull, bacterial culture of exudate from the ears was performed to reach a definitive diagnosis.
- rabbit bullae,
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