Contemporary Muslim Revival: The Case of "Protestant Islam"The Muslim World (2007)
AbstractIslam is seen as problematic today because of the actions of a few people armed with an aberrant ideology and the moral support or sympathy of a constituency of angry and disaffected Muslims in various parts of the world, often provoked by what they see as hypocritical policies and actions on the part of the world's powers. The problematic nature of Islam, however, was partly made possible by the centuries of conflict between Islam and the West. For the first few hundred years of its existence, Christianity was the only universal religion, both in theory and in practice. With the rise of Islam and its rapid spread beyond the Arabian peninsula to Christian lands in Palestine, North Africa and the Iberian peninsular, it must have come as a shock to Christendom that there was now a religion that could challenge it.