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Application of a Novel Catalyst in the Esterification of Mixed Industrial Palm Oil for Biodiesel Production
Bioenergy Research (2015)

Mixed industrial palm oil (MIPO) is proposed in this study as a renewable and agro-industrial raw material to produce biodiesel fuel. MIPO was obtained by mixing of acidic crude palm oil with sludge palm oil. Due to the high level of free fatty acid (FFA) in MIPO (8.5 %), esterification is needed to remove the acidity to the minimum level before biodiesel production. This is the first time 1-propanesulphonic acid (1-PSA) has been introduced as a catalyst for the pretreatment of MIPO. Using optimum conditions, the FFA content was successfully reduced from 8.5 % to less than 1 %. The biodiesel produced meets the international standards (ASTM D6751 and EN 14214). 1-PSA is therefore a promising catalyst that can be used to treat various types of acidic oils. Link to Full-Text Articles :

  • 1-Propanesulphonic acid,
  • Biodiesel,
  • Esterification,
  • Free fatty acid,
  • Sludge palm oil,
  • Mixed industrial palm oil,
  • BIO-OIL,
  • FUEL,
Publication Date
March, 2015
Publisher Statement
ISI Document Delivery No.: CC0UA Times Cited: 0 Cited Reference Count: 22 Cited References: Abnisa F, 2013, BIOENERG RES, V6, P830, DOI 10.1007/s12155-013-9313-8 Abnisa F, 2011, BIOMASS BIOENERG, V35, P3604, DOI 10.1016/j.biombioe.2011.05.011 Abou-Shanab RAI, 2011, APPL ENERG, V88, P3300, DOI 10.1016/j.apenergy.2011.01.060 Di Serio M, 2008, ENERG FUEL, V22, P207, DOI 10.1021/ef700250g Elsheikh YA, 2011, ENERG CONVERS MANAGE, V52, P804, DOI 10.1016/j.enconman.2010.08.005 Hayyan A, 2012, ENERG SOURCE PART A, DOI [10.1080/15567036.2012.721057, DOI 10.1080/15567036.2012.721057] Hayyan A, 2011, BIORESOURCE TECHNOL, V102, P9564, DOI 10.1016/j.biortech.2011.07.074 Hayyan A, 2014, J IND ENG CHEM, V20, P2066, DOI 10.1016/j.jiec.2013.09.033 Hayyan A, 2011, FUEL PROCESS TECHNOL, V92, P920, DOI 10.1016/j.fuproc.2010.12.011 Hayyan A, 2014, CHEM ENG SCI, V116, P223, DOI 10.1016/j.ces.2014.03.031 Hayyan A, 2014, J CLEAN PROD, V65, P246, DOI 10.1016/j.jclepro.2013.08.031 Hayyan A, 2014, INT J GREEN ENERGY, V11, P129, DOI 10.1080/15435075.2013.770397 Hayyan A, 2013, IND CROP PROD, V46, P392, DOI 10.1016/j.indcrop.2013.01.033 Hayyan A, 2013, KOREAN J CHEM ENG, V30, P1229, DOI 10.1007/s11814-013-0045-4 Hayyan A, 2013, BULG CHEM COMMUN, V45, P394 Hayyan A, 2012, AFR J BIOTECHNOL, V11, P12510 Hayyan A, 2013, CHEM ENG SCI, V92, P81, DOI 10.1016/j.ces.2012.12.024 Hayyan A, 2010, CHEM PAP, V66, P39 Hayyan A, 2010, BIORESOURCE TECHNOL, V101, P7804, DOI 10.1016/j.biortech.2010.05.045 Kuntom A, 2005, MALAYSIAN PALM OIL B Schenk PM, 2008, BIOENERG RES, V1, P20, DOI 10.1007/s12155-008-9008-8 Tan CH, 2009, FOOD CHEM, V113, P645, DOI 10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.07.052 Hayyan, Adeeb Hashim, Mohd Ali Hayyan, Maan University of Malaya [HIR-MOHE (D000003-16001)] The financial support of the University of Malaya Grant No. HIR-MOHE (D000003-16001) and the assistance of Miss Khor Gui Qing with some of the experiments are gratefully acknowledged. 0 SPRINGER NEW YORK BIOENERG RES
Citation Information
"Application of a Novel Catalyst in the Esterification of Mixed Industrial Palm Oil for Biodiesel Production" Bioenergy Research Vol. 8 Iss. 1 (2015)
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