Skip to main content
Contribution to Book
The Potential of Aflatoxin Sequestering Clay
The Mycotoxin Factbook: Food and Feed Topics (2006)
  • Timothy D. Phillips, Texas A & M University - College Station
  • Evans Afriyie-Gyawu, Georgia Southern University
  • Jia-Sheng Wang, Texas Tech University
  • Jonathan H. Williams, University of Georgia
  • Henry Huebner, Texas A & M University - College Station
One of the best-known ‘Hungaricums’ is the seasoning/ground paprika, which is widely utilised in the preparation of industrial meat products in the Hungarian cuisine. The official ban on retail trade of paprika on 28 October 2004, as a consequence of the findings that in some paprika powders the level of aflatoxin B1 was higher than allowed, was a shock for the consumers and became a headline in the press all over the world. This paper analyses the strategies and behaviour of actors in the paprika sector. The most important lessons are: (1) The governmental information system on import was too complex and not up-to-date; (2) The official quality inspection organisations were not sensitive enough to ‘weak signals’ (e.g. ‘amateur’ forums on the internet) of the coming problems; (3) ISO and HACCP systems of companies did not offer sufficient security for the consumer that the product in the packaging is identical to the quality declaration; (4) Globalisation of food trade and the increasing complexity of food chains involve the extension of product paths, which highlights the importance of continuous product monitoring; (5) Quality standards of the imported products should be systematically updated; (6) A well-defined risk and crisis communication strategy was not available on governmental and company level. The debates of the different organs of quality inspection and food safety considerably decreased public trust; (7) Hungarian consumers attribute great importance to the problem of food safety. In spreading information expansively, the modern methods of communication gain increasing importance. These media should be more effectively utilised in risk communication, too; (8) There are differences in risk acceptance and risk awareness between different consumer segments. These differences should be taken into consideration in planning of crisis communication; (9) It has been proven that on the basis of consumers’ risk acceptance and risk awareness, the intended food consumer behaviour can be forecasted with a relatively good efficiency. This can be an important tool in the development of a risk communication strategy on governmental aswell as entrepreneurial level.
  • Paprika,
  • System analysis,
  • Food safety,
  • Consumer behavior,
  • Risk Analysis
Publication Date
October 22, 2006
D. Barug, D. Bhatnager, H. P. van Egmond, J. W. van der Kamp, W. A. van Osenbruggen, and A. Visconti
Wageningen Academic Publishers
Citation Information
Timothy D. Phillips, Evans Afriyie-Gyawu, Jia-Sheng Wang, Jonathan H. Williams, et al.. "The Potential of Aflatoxin Sequestering Clay" Rotterdam, NetherlandsThe Mycotoxin Factbook: Food and Feed Topics (2006) p. 329 - 346
Available at: