This paper reviews studies that have examined associations between unusual sleep experiences (including nightmares, vivid dreaming, narcolepsy symptoms, and complex nighttime behaviors) and dissociation and schizotypy. Using correlational studies and structural analyses, evidence is provided that unusual sleep experiences, dissociation, and schizotypy belong to a common domain. It is demonstrated that unusual sleep experiences show specificity to dissociation and schizotypy compared to other daytime symptoms (e.g., anxiety, depression, substance use) and other sleep disturbances (e.g., insomnia, lassitude/fatigue). The paper also outlines the methodological limitations of the existing evidence and makes suggestions for future research. Finally, three models for the overlap of daytime and nighttime symptoms are reviewed, including biological abnormalities, trauma, and personality traits. Although further research is needed, it is suggested that daytime and nighttime symptoms result from problems with sleep-wake state boundaries, which may be precipitated by stress or trauma. In addition, association between daytime and nighttime symptoms can be attributed to the higher order personality trait of Oddity.
- Dissociative Disorders,
- Factor Analysis,
- Schizotypal Personality Disorder,
- Sleep Disorders,
Available at: http://works.bepress.com/erin_koffel/4/