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The Two-Factor Structure of Sleep Complaints and Its Relation to Depression and Anxiety
Journal of Abnormal Psychology
  • Erin Koffel, University of Iowa
  • David Watson, University of Iowa
Document Type
Peer Reviewed
Publication Date
NLM Title Abbreviation
J Abnorm Psychol
PubMed ID
DOI of Published Version
Although sleep complaints are common in depression and anxiety, there is little agreement as to how they should be organized and assessed. It is also unclear whether sleep complaints show specificity with certain disorders or if they are nonspecific symptoms. We examined the structure of sleep complaints and the relations of these complaints to depression and anxiety in three samples: college students, older adults, and psychiatric patients. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses indicated that sleep complaints consistently defined two distinct dimensions: Insomnia and Lassitude. The Insomnia factor included indicators of early, middle, and late insomnia, as well as poor sleep quality. The Lassitude factor included measures of hypersomnia, fatigue, and sleepiness. Both factors were significantly related to symptoms and diagnoses of depression and anxiety. However, Lassitude was more strongly related to symptoms of depression and anxiety than was Insomnia. In addition, Lassitude showed specificity to measures and diagnoses of depression compared to anxiety disorders. This specificity can be explained by Lassitude’s relation with negative and positive emotionality, both of which are components of depression.
  • Major Depression,
  • Anxiety Disorders,
  • Sleep,
  • Factor Analysis
Granting or Sponsoring Agency
National Institute of Mental Health
Grant Number
This research was supported in part by National Institute of Mental Health Grant R01-MH068472 to David Watson.
Journal Article Version
Author's Original
Published Article/Book Citation
Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 118:1 (2009) pp. 183-194. DOI: 10.1037/a0013945
Copyright © American Psychological Association, 2009. This article may not exactly replicate the final version published in the APA journal. It is not the copy of record. Posted by permission.
Citation Information
Erin Koffel and David Watson. "The Two-Factor Structure of Sleep Complaints and Its Relation to Depression and Anxiety" Journal of Abnormal Psychology Vol. 118 Iss. 1 (2009) p. 183 - 194 ISSN: 0021-843X
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