The present invention includes a method and apparatus for the detection of a target material. The method and apparatus includes providing a substrate with a surface and forming a domains of deposited materials thereon. The deposited material can be placed on the surface and bound directly and non-specifically to the surface, or it may be specifically or non-specifically bound to the surface. The deposited material has an affinity for a specific target material. The domains thus created are termed affinity domains or deposition domains. Multiple affinity domains of deposited materials can be deposited on a single surface, creating a plurality of specific binding affinity domains for a plurality of target materials. Target materials may include, for example, pathogens or pathogenic markers such as viruses, bacteria, bacterial spores, parasites, prions, fungi, mold or pollen spores. The device thus created is incubated with a test solution, gas or other supporting environment suspected of containing one or more of the target materials. Specific binding interactions between the target materials and a particular affinity domain occurs and is detected by various methods.
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