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Matrix Effects on Flavour Volatiles Release in Dark Chocolates Varying in Particle Size Distribution and Fat Content using GC-Mass spectrometry and GC-Olfactometry
Food Chemistry (2009)
  • Dr. Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa, (PhD)
  • Alistair Paterson
  • Mark Fowler
  • Angela Ryan
Abstract

Influences of matrix particle size distribution (PSD) (18, 25, 35, 50 μm) and fat content (25, 30, 35%) on flavour release of dark chocolate volatiles were quantified by static headspace gas chromatography using GC-MS. Sixty-eight (68) flavour compounds were identified comprising: alcohols, aldehydes, esters, ketones, furans, pyrans, pyrazines, pyridines, pyroles, phenols, pyrones, and thiozoles. From GC-olfactometry 2-methylpropanal, 2-methylbutanal and 3-methylbutanal had chocolate notes. With cocoa/roasted/nutty notes were: trimethyl-, tetramethyl-, 2,3-dimethyl-, 2,5-dimethyl-, 3(or 2),5-dimethyl-2(or 3)-ethyl- and 3,5(or 6)-diethyl-2-methylpyrazine and furfuralpyrrole. Compounds with fruity/floral notes included: 3,7-dimethyl-1,6-octadien-3-ol, 5-ethenyltetrahydro-R,R,5-trimethyl-cis-2-furanmethanol. Caramel-like, sweet and honey notes were conferred by: 2-phenylethanol, phenylacetaldehyde, 2-phenylethylacetate, 2,3,5-trimethyl-6-ethylpyrazine, 2-carboxaldehyde-1H-pyrrole, furancarboxaldehyde, furfuryl alcohol and 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)furanone. There were direct relationship between fat content and 3-methylbutanal and branched pyrazines but inverse with 2-phenylethanol, furfuryl alcohol, methylpyrazine, phenylacetaldehyde, 2, 3, 5-trimethyl-6-ethylpyrazine and 2-carboxaldehyde-1-H-pyrrole. Particle size influenced higher alcohols, aldehydes, esters, ketones and pyrazines concentrations at all fat contents. A multivariate product space suggested flavour effects of the interacting factors.

Keywords
  • Chocolate,
  • structure,
  • flavour,
  • flavour volatiles,
  • flavour release,
  • pyrazines,
  • acetic acid,
  • particle size distribution,
  • GC-MS,
  • GC-Olfactometry
Disciplines
Publication Date
2009
Citation Information
Dr. Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa, Alistair Paterson, Mark Fowler and Angela Ryan. "Matrix Effects on Flavour Volatiles Release in Dark Chocolates Varying in Particle Size Distribution and Fat Content using GC-Mass spectrometry and GC-Olfactometry" Food Chemistry Vol. 113 Iss. 1 (2009)
Available at: http://works.bepress.com/emmanueloheneafoakwa/101/