Skip to main content
Article
Frequency of Private Spiritual Activity and Cardiovascular Risk in Post-menopausal Women: The Women's Health Initiative
Cardiovascular Medicine Publications and Presentations
  • Elena Salmoirago Blotcher, University of Massachusetts Medical School
  • George Fitchett, Rush University
  • Kathleen M Hovey, University at Buffalo
  • Eliezer Schnall, Yeshiva University
  • Cynthia Thomson, University of Arizona
  • Christopher A Andrews, University at Buffalo, University of Michigan
  • Sybil Crawford, University of Massachusetts Medical School
  • Mary Jo O'Sullivan, University of Miami
  • Stephen Post, Stony Brook University
  • Rowan T. Chlebowski, University of California-Los Angeles
  • Judith K. Ockene, University of Massachusetts Medical School
UMMS Affiliation
Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine; Department of Medicine, Division of Preventive and Behavioral Medicine
Date
5-1-2013
Document Type
Article Postprint
Subjects
Women's Health; Cardiovascular Diseases; Spirituality; Postmenopause
Abstract
Purpose: Spirituality has been associated with better cardiac autonomic balance, but its association with cardiovascular risk is not well studied. We examined whether more frequent private spiritual activity was associated with reduced cardiovascular risk in postmenopausal women enrolled in the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study. Methods: Frequency of private spiritual activity (prayer, Bible reading, and meditation) was selfreported at year 5 of follow-up. Cardiovascular outcomes were centrally adjudicated, and cardiovascular risk was estimated from proportional hazards models. Results: Final models included 43,708 women (mean age: 68.9±7.3; median follow-up: 7.0 years) free of cardiac disease through year 5 of follow-up. In age-adjusted models private spiritual activity was associated with increased cardiovascular risk (HR: 1.16; CI 1.02, 1.31, weekly vs. never; 1.25; CI 1.11, 1.40, daily vs. never). In multivariate models adjusted for demographics, lifestyle, risk factors, and psychosocial factors, such association remained significant only in the group with daily activity (HR 1.16; CI: 1.03, 1.30). Subgroup analyses indicate this association may be driven by the presence of severe chronic diseases. Conclusion: In aging women, higher frequency of private spiritual activity was associated with increased cardiovascular risk, likely reflecting a mobilization of spiritual resources in order to cope with aging and illness.
Rights and Permissions
This is the authors' final, peer-reviewed version of the article as prepared for publication in: Annals of Epidemiology 2013 May;23(5):239-45. doi: 10.1016/j.annepidem.2013.03.002. Link to final version of article on publisher's website
Related Resources
Link to article in PubMed
Keywords
  • women's health,
  • cardiovascular diseases,
  • spirituality
PubMed ID
23621989
Citation Information
Elena Salmoirago Blotcher, George Fitchett, Kathleen M Hovey, Eliezer Schnall, et al.. "Frequency of Private Spiritual Activity and Cardiovascular Risk in Post-menopausal Women: The Women's Health Initiative" Vol. 23 Iss. 5 (2013)
Available at: http://works.bepress.com/elena_salmoiragoblotcher/14/