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The open window of susceptibility to infection after acute exercise in healthy young male elite athletes
Exercise immunology review
  • Michael W. Kakanis, Bond University
  • Jonathan Peake, University of Queensland
  • Ekua W. Brenu, Bond University
  • Michael Simmonds, Bond University
  • A. Bon Gray, Bond University
  • Sue L. Hooper, Queensland Academy of Sport
  • Sonya M. Marshall-Gradisnik, Bond University
Date of this Version
Document Type
Journal Article
Publication Details

Published Version.

Kakanis, M. W., Peake, J., Brenu, E. W., Simmonds, M., Gray, B., Hooper, S. L., Marshall-Gradisnik, S. M. (2010). The open window of susceptibility to infection after acute exercise in healthy young male elite athletes. Exercise Immunology Review, 16(Suppl.), 119-137.

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2010 HERDC submission. FoR Code: 110799, 119999

© Copyright International Society of Exercise and Immunology, 2010.

The 'open window' theory is characterised by short term suppression of the immune system following an acute bout of endurance exercise. This window of opportunity may allow for an increase in susceptibility to upper respiratory illness (URI). Many studies have indicated a decrease in immune function in response to exercise. However many studies do not indicate changes in immune function past 2 hours after the completion of exercise, consequently failing to determine whether these immune cells numbers, or importantly their function, return to resting levels before the start of another bout of exercise. Ten male 'A' grade cyclists (age 24.2 +/- 5.3 years; body mass 73.8 +/- 6.5 kg; VO2peak 65.9 +/- 7.1 mL x kg(-1) x min(-1)) exercised for two hours at 90% of their second ventilatory threshold. Blood samples were collected pre-, immediately post-, 2 hours, 4 hours, 6 hours, 8 hours, and 24 hours post-exercise. Immune variables examined included total leukocyte counts, neutrophil function (oxidative burst and phagocytic function), lymphocyte subset counts (CD4+, CD8+, and CD16+/56+), natural killer cell activity (NKCA), and NK phenotypes (CD56dimCD16+, and CD56(bright)CD16-). There was a significant increase in total lymphocyte numbers from pre-, to immediately post-exercise (p < 0.01), followed by a significant decrease at 2 hours post-exercise (p < 0.001). CD4+ T-cell counts significantly increased from pre-exercise, to 4 hours post- (p < 0.05), and 6 hours post-exercise (p < 0.01). However NK (CD16+/56+) cell numbers decreased significantly from pre-exercise to 4 h post-exercise (p < 0.05), to 6 h post-exercise (p < 0.05), and to 8 h post-exercise (p < 0.01O). In contrast, CD56(bright)CD16- NK cell counts significantly increased from pre-exercise to immediately post-exercise (p < 0.01).
Citation Information
Michael W. Kakanis, Jonathan Peake, Ekua W. Brenu, Michael Simmonds, et al.. "The open window of susceptibility to infection after acute exercise in healthy young male elite athletes" Exercise immunology review Vol. 16 Iss. Suppl. (2010) p. 119 - 137
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