Skip to main content
The remote brief intervention and referral to treatment model: Development, functionality, acceptability, and feasibility
University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications
  • Edwin D. Boudreaux, University of Massachusetts Medical School
  • Brianna Haskins, University of Massachusetts Medical School
  • Tina Harralson, Polaris Health Directions Inc.
  • Edward Bernstein, Boston University School of Medicine
UMMS Affiliation
Department of Emergency Medicine
Document Type

BACKGROUND: Screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) is effective for reducing risky alcohol use across a variety of medical settings. However, most programs have been unsustainable because of cost and time demands. Telehealth may alleviate on-site clinician burden. This exploratory study examines the feasibility of a new Remote Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment (R-BIRT) model.

METHODS: Eligible emergency department (ED) patients were enrolled into one of five models. (1) Warm Handoff: clinician-facilitated phone call during ED visit. (2) Patient Direct: patient-initiated call during visit. (3) Electronic Referral: patient contacted by R-BIRT personnel post visit. (4) Patient Choice: choice of models 1-3. (5) Modified Patient Choice: choice of models 1-2, Electronic Referral offered if 1-2 were declined. Once connected, a health coach offered assessment, counseling, and referral to treatment. Follow up assessments were conducted at 1 and 3 months. Primary outcomes measured were acceptance, satisfaction, and completion rates.

RESULTS: Of 125 eligible patients, 50 were enrolled, for an acceptance rate of 40%. Feedback and satisfaction ratings were generally positive. Completion rates were 58% overall, with patients enrolled into a model wherein the consultation occurred during the ED visit, as opposed to after the visit, much more likely to complete a consultation, 90% vs. 10%, chi(2) (4, N=50)=34.8, p < 0.001.

CONCLUSIONS: The R-BIRT offers a feasible alternative to in-person alcohol SBIRT and should be studied further. The public health impact of having accessible, sustainable, evidence-based SBIRT for substance use across a range of medical settings could be considerable.

Rights and Permissions
Citation: Drug Alcohol Depend. 2015 Oct 1;155:236-42. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2015.07.014. Epub 2015 Jul 23. Link to article on publisher's site
Related Resources
Link to Article in PubMed
  • Brief motivational intervention,
  • Referrals,
  • Screening,
  • Substance abuse,
  • Technology,
  • Telehealth
PubMed ID
Citation Information
Edwin D. Boudreaux, Brianna Haskins, Tina Harralson and Edward Bernstein. "The remote brief intervention and referral to treatment model: Development, functionality, acceptability, and feasibility" Vol. 155 (2015) ISSN: 0376-8716 (Linking)
Available at: