The impact of surfactant type on the physical and chemical stability of solid lipid nanoparticle (SLN) suspensions containing encapsulated beta-carotene was investigated. Oil-in-water emulsions were formed by homogenizing 10% w/w lipid phase (1 mg/g beta-carotene in carrier lipid) and 90% w/w aqueous phase (surfactant + cosurfactant) at pH 7 and 75 degrees C and then cooling to 20 degrees C. The impact of surfactant type was investigated using aqueous phases containing different water-soluble surfactants [2.4% w/w high-melting (HM) lecithin, 2.4% w/w low-melting (LM) lecithin, and 1.4% w/w Tween 60 or 1.4% w/w Tween 80] and a cosurfactant (0.6% taurodeoxycholate). The impact of the physical state of the carrier lipid was investigated by using either a high melting point lipid (tripalmitin) to form solid particles or a low melting point lipid (medium chain triglycerides, MCT) to form liquid droplets. A higher fraction of alpha-crystals was detected in solid particles prepared with high-melting surfactants (HM-lecithin and Tween 60) than with low-melting surfactants (LM-lecithin and Tween 80). With the exception of the HM-lecithin-coated solid particles, the suspensions were stable to particle aggregation during 21 days of storage. beta-Carotene degradation after 21 days of storage was 11, 97, 100, and 91% in the solid particles (tripalmitin) and 16, 21, 95, and 90% in the liquid droplets (MCT) for HM-lecithin, LM-lecithin, Tween 80, and Tween 60, respectively. These results suggest that beta-carotene may be stabilized by (1) LM- or HM-lecithin when liquid carrier lipids are used and (2) HM-lecithin when solid carrier lipids are used. The origin of this latter effect is attributed to the impact of the surfactant tails on the generation of a crystal structure better suited to maintain the chemical stability of the encapsulated bioactive.
Available at: http://works.bepress.com/djulian_mcclements/39/