A primary emulsion was prepared by homogenizing 10 wt% corn oil with 90 wt% aqueous β-lactoglobulin solution (0.5 wt% β-lg, pH 3 or 7) using a two-stage high-pressure valve homogenizer. This emulsion was mixed with aqueous pectin (citrus, 59% DE) stock solution (2 wt%, pH 3 or 7) and NaCl solution to yield secondary emulsions with 5 wt% corn oil, 0.225 wt% β-lactoglobulin, 0.2 wt% pectin and 0 or 100 mM NaCl. The final pH of the emulsions was then adjusted (3–8). Primary and secondary emulsions were ultrasonically treated (30 s, 20 kHz, 40% amplitude) to disrupt any flocculated droplets. Secondary emulsions were more stable than primary emulsions at intermediate pHs. Secondary emulsions prepared at pH 7 had smaller particle diameters (0.35 to ∼6 μm) than those prepared at pH 3 (0.42 to ∼18 μm) across the whole pH range studied, and also had smaller diameters than the primary emulsions (0.35 to ∼14 μm). Ultrasound treatment reduced the particle diameter of both primary and secondary emulsions and lowered the rate of creaming. The presence of NaCl screened the charges and thus the electrostatic interaction between biopolymer molecules and primary emulsion droplets. Secondary emulsions were more stable to the presence of 100 mM NaCl at low pHs (3–4) than primary emulsions. This study shows that stable emulsions can be prepared by engineering their interfacial membranes using the electrostatic interaction of natural biopolymers, especially at intermediate pHs where proteins normally fail to function.
- Emulsion; Stability; Interfacial engineering; β-Lactoglobulin; Pectin
Available at: http://works.bepress.com/djulian_mcclements/185/