Twist, the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, is involved in the process of epithelial to mesenchymal transitions (EMTs), which play an essential role in cancer metastasis. Overexpression of Twist or its promoter methylation is a common scenario in metastatic carcinomas. Twist is activated by a variety of signal transduction pathways, including Akt, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, mitogen-activated protein kinase, Ras, and Wnt signaling. Activated Twist upregulates N-cadherin and downregulates E-cadherin, which are the hallmarks of EMT. Moreover, Twist plays an important role in some physiological processes involved in metastasis, like angiogenesis, invadopodia, extravasation, and chromosomal instability. Twist also protects cancer cells from apoptotic cell death. In addition, Twist is responsible for the stemness of cancer cells and the generation of drug resistance. Recently, targeting Twist has gained significant interests in cancer therapeutics. The inactivation of Twist by small RNA technology or chemotherapeutic approach has been proved successful. Moreover, several inhibitors which are antagonistic to the upstream or downstream molecules of Twist signaling pathways have also been identified. Development of potential treatment strategies by targeting Twist has a great promise in cancer therapeutics. Â© 2013 International Society of Oncology and BioMarkers (ISOBM).
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