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Outcome indicators for direct and indirect caregiving
Clinical nursing research
  • Deborah P. Schoenfelder, University of Iowa
  • Elizabeth A. Swanson, University of Iowa
  • Janet K. Specht, University of Iowa
  • Meridean Maas, University of Iowa
  • M. Johnson
Document Type
Peer Reviewed
Publication Date
NLM Title Abbreviation
Clin Nurs Res
PubMed ID
DOI of Published Version

Informal caregiving and outcomes for caregiving are an important part of health care and of particular importance in nursing. The purpose of this research is to report the results of a survey mailed to nursing experts for validation of the outcome labels Caregiver Role Performance: Direct Care and Caregiver Role Performance: Indirect Care and their accompanying indicators. Experts were asked to rate how important the identified indicators were for assessing those two outcomes. In addition, the respondents were asked to what extent nursing interventions influence the achievement of each identified indicator for Caregiver Role Performance: Direct Care and Caregiver Role Performance: Indirect Care. In general, the validity of the concept analysis work by the caregiver focus group was supported. Ten indicators for Caregiver Performance: Direct Care were retained, 1 was dropped that was considered most appropriate for indirect care, and 3 new indicators were added to reflect the nurse experts surveyed. For Caregiver Performance: Indirect Care, all of the indicators were retained.

  • Caregivers/standards,
  • Data Collection,
  • Family Nursing/standards,
  • Humans,
  • Outcome Assessment (Health Care),
  • Professional-Family Relations,
  • Social Support
Published Article/Book Citation
Clinical nursing research, 9:1 (2000) pp.47-69.
Citation Information
Deborah P. Schoenfelder, Elizabeth A. Swanson, Janet K. Specht, Meridean Maas, et al.. "Outcome indicators for direct and indirect caregiving" Clinical nursing research Vol. 9 Iss. 1 (2000) p. 47 - 69 ISSN: 1054-7738
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