Skip to main content
Prediction of Freeze-Thaw Durability of Concrete
ACI Materials Journal
  • David Newton Richardson, Missouri University of Science and Technology
  • S. Michael Lusher

The AASHTO T 161 (ASTM C666) durability factor (DF) is used for evaluation and acceptance of aggregates and is being considered as an end-result performance specification criterion for evaluation of pavement concrete. However, the test method duration is lengthy. In a three-phase project, a method of shorter duration has been developed for the prediction of DF based primarily on aggregate testing. Thirty-two ledge/quarry/geologic formations were subjected to 21 test methods that reflected the major failure mechanisms of frost susceptibility (D-cracking). The DFs ranged from 28 to 98 and nominal maximum aggregate sizes were 3/8 to 1 in. (9.5 to 25 mm). Multiple linear regressions were used to produce several alternate models of varying accuracy and complexity for DF prediction. The models were validated with a separate dataset. As an alternate to the predictive models, a threshold-limits method was also developed based on the combined dataset plus 38 additional aggregates.

Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering
Keywords and Phrases
  • Concrete aggregates,
  • Concretes,
  • Durability,
  • Forecasting,
  • Freezing,
  • Testing,
  • Thawing,
  • Freezing and thawing durability,
  • Freezing and thawing resistance,
  • Frost susceptibility,
  • Maximum aggregate sizes,
  • Multiple linear regressions,
  • Pavement concrete,
  • Performance specifications,
  • Three-phase projects,
  • Aggregates,
  • Durability,
  • Freezing-And-Thawing Resistance
Document Type
Article - Journal
Document Version
File Type
© 2015 American Concrete Institute (ACI), All rights reserved.
Publication Date
Citation Information
David Newton Richardson and S. Michael Lusher. "Prediction of Freeze-Thaw Durability of Concrete" ACI Materials Journal Vol. 112 Iss. 3 (2015) p. 439 - 450 ISSN: 0889-325X
Available at: