CE 3 13 is a second level properties of concrete lecture course. In an effort to make it appear less abstract to the students, over the course of several semesters several learning strategies were tried, including journaling, muddiest point, entering the academy, role playing, bookends-on-a-lecture, and hands-on lab projects. Most recently, an emphasis on short writing-to-learn papers, a problems-based stance, and an integrated lab project was used. Student evaluations indicated that the lab projects and the increased writing was of significant benefit in promotion of learning.
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