Trace metal concentrations were generally within expected ranges for sediments derived from the New Guinea highlands. Above average levels of Cu, Cr, and Cd occurred in some lakes. Aquatic plants were abundant in most lakes but species diversity was low. Lakes at 1700 m had a distinct lowland flora. Zooplankton abundances and diversity were low in all lakes. Introduced carp Cyprinus carpio was the only fish found in the lakes.
Chambers, MR, Kyle, JH, Leach, GJ, Osborne, PL & Leach DN 1987, 'A limnological study of seven highlands lakes in Papua New Guinea', Science in New Guinea, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 51-81.